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Santalum

- Noun

A genus of trees with entire opposite leaves and small apetalous flowers. There are less than a dozen species, occurring from India to Australia and the Pacific Islands. See Sandalwood.


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  • Santalum

    Santalum

    Santalum is a genus of woody flowering plants, the best known and commercially valuable of which is the Indian sandalwood tree, S. album . Members of the genus are trees or shrubs. Most are root parasites which photosynthesize their own food, but tap the roots of other species for water and inorganic nutrients. Several species, most notably S. album, produce highly aromatic wood, used for scents and perfumes and for herbal medicine. About 25 known species range across the Indomalaya, Australasia, and Oceania ecozones, from India through Malesia to the Pacific Islands, as far as Hawaiʻi and the Juan Fernández Islands off the coast of South America.

  • Santalum ellipticum

    Santalum ellipticum

    Santalum ellipticum, commonly known as ʻIliahialoʻe (Hawaiian) or coastal sandalwood, is a species of flowering plant in the mistletoe family, Santalaceae, that is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. It is a sprawling shrub to small tree, typically reaching a height of 1–5 m (3.3–16.4 ft) and a canopy spread of 1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft), but is extremely variable in size and shape. Like other members of the genus, S. ellipticum is a hemi-parasite, deriving some of its nutrients from the host plant by attaching to its roots.

  • Santalum obtusifolium

    Santalum obtusifolium

    Santalum obtusifolium, known as the sandalwood or blunt sandalwood, is a shrub found in eastern Australia. Often seen around a metre tall, it may grow to 2.5 metres high. Seen in eucalyptus forests and woodlands, often by creeks and usually not far from the sea. It grows in moderate to high rainfall areas such as Royal and Lamington National Parks. Growing as far from the coast as Yarrowitch, Megalong Valley and Braidwood in New South Wales.

  • Santalum spicatum

    Santalum spicatum

    Santalum spicatum, the Australian sandalwood, is a tree native to semiarid areas at the edge of Southwest Australia. It is traded as sandalwood, and its valuable oil has been used as an aromatic, a medicine, and a food source. S. spicatum is one of four high-value Santalum species occurring in Australia.

  • Santalum freycinetianum

    Santalum freycinetianum

    Santalum freycinetianum, the forest sandalwood, Freycinet sandalwood, or ʻIliahi, is a species of flowering tree in the European mistletoe family, Santalaceae, that is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. Its binomial name commemorates Henri Louis Claude de Saulces de Freycinet, a 19th-century French explorer. ʻIliahi inhabits dry, coastal mesic, mixed mesic, and wet forests on Oʻahu, Kauaʻi, Lānaʻi, Maui, and Molokaʻi at elevations of 250–950 m (820–3,120 ft). It grows in areas that receive 500–3,800 mm (20–150 in) of annual rainfall. Like other members of its genus, ʻiliahi is a root hemi-parasite, deriving some of its nutrients from the host plant; common hosts include koa (Acacia koa ), koaiʻa (Acacia koaia ), and ʻaʻaliʻi (Dodonaea viscosa ).

  • Santalum macgregorii

    Santalum macgregorii is a species of plant in the Santalaceae family. It is found in possibly Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. It is threatened by habitat loss.

  • Santalum lanceolatum

    Santalum lanceolatum

    Santalum lanceolatum is an Australian tree of the family Santalaceae. It is commonly known as desert quandong, northern sandalwood, sandalwood, or true sandalwood and in some areas as burdardu. The mature height of this plant is variable, from 1 to 7 m. The flowers are green, white, and cream, appearing between January and October. The species has a distribution throughout central Australia, becoming scattered or unusual in more southern regions.

  • Santalum fernandezianum

    Santalum fernandezianum, also known as the Chile sandalwood, was a species of plant in the Santalaceae family. It was endemic to the Juan Fernández Islands off the coast of Chile. Last seen in 1908 by Carl Skottsberg, the species was cut to extinction for its aromatic wood.

  • Santalum album

    Santalum album

    Santalum album, or Indian sandalwood, is a small tropical tree, and is the most commonly known source of sandalwood. It is native to Island Southeast Asia. Certain cultures place great significance on its fragrant and medicinal qualities. It is also considered sacred in some religions and is used in different religious traditions. The high value of the species has caused its past exploitation, to the point where the wild population is vulnerable to extinction. Indian sandalwood still commands high prices for its essential oil, but due to lack of sizable trees it is no longer used for fine woodworking as before. The plant is widely cultivated and long lived, although harvest is only viable after many years. Etymologically it is derived from Sanskrit चन्दनं chandanam.

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