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- Noun

The state of an albino, or of a white child of black parents.

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  • Radial neuropathy

    Radial neuropathy

    Radial neuropathy is a type of mononeuropathy which results from acute trauma to the radial nerve that extends the length of the arm. It is known as transient paresthesia when sensation is temporarily abnormal.

  • Cuban neuropathy

    An epidemic of optic and peripheral neuropathy occurred in Cuba during 1992–1993. According to a preliminary summary from the Ministry of Public Health of Cuba (MINSAP), there were 50,862 cases out of a population of 10.8 million. The etiology is likely nutritional deficiencies, particularly thiamine, compounded by toxic effects of alcohol and tobacco use.

  • Subacute myelo-optic neuropathy

    Subacute myelo-optic neuropathy (SMON) is an iatrogenic disease of the nervous system leading to a disabling paralysis, blindness and even death. Its defining manifestation was as an epidemic in Japan during the 1960s: the Japanese government estimated 11,000 were affected; however, the College of Medicine at the University of Tokyo put the number at 30,000, citing a lack of preservation of medical records for longer than five years and a lack of cooperation from doctors as the reasons for the discrepancy. On August 3, 1978, the Tokyo District Court ruled that the cause of SMON is Clioquinol. Its manufacturer, Ciba-Geigy, has publicly stated that "Medical products manufactured and sold by us have been responsible for the occurrence of [SMON] in Japan, we extend our apologies."

  • Wartenberg's migratory sensory neuropathy

    Wartenberg's migratory sensory neuropathy (also known as Wartenberg's migrant sensory neuritis) affects the cutaneous nerves.

  • Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy

    Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION) is a medical condition characterized by damage to the retrobulbar portion of the optic nerve due to inadequate blood flow (ischemia) to the optic nerve. Despite the term posterior, this form of damage to the eye's optic nerve due to poor blood flow also includes cases where the cause of inadequate blood flow to the nerve is anterior, as the condition describes a particular mechanism of visual loss as much as the location of damage in the optic nerve. In contrast, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) is distinguished from PION by the fact that AION occurs spontaneously and on one side in affected individuals with predisposing anatomic or cardiovascular risk factors.

  • Giant axonal neuropathy with curly hair

    Giant axonal neuropathy with curly hair is an autosomal recessive condition due to mutations in gigaxonin.

  • Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN) is a name sometimes given to a group of different neuropathies which are all characterized by their impact upon both afferent and efferent neural communication. HMSN are characterised by atypical neural development and degradation of neural tissue. The two common forms of HMSN are either hypertrophic demyelinated nerves or complete atrophy of neural tissue. Hypertrophic condition causes neural stiffness and a demyelination of nerves in the peripheral nervous system, and atrophy causes the breakdown of axons and neural cell bodies. In these disorders, a patient experiences progressive muscle atrophy and sensory neuropathy of the extremities.

  • Multifocal motor neuropathy

    Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is a progressively worsening condition where muscles in the extremities gradually weaken. The disorder, a pure motor neuropathy syndrome, is sometimes mistaken for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) because of the similarity in the clinical picture, especially if muscle fasciculations are present. MMN is thought to be autoimmune. It was first described in the mid-1980s.

  • Arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

    Arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AAION or arteritic AION) is the cause of vision loss that occurs in temporal arteritis (aka giant-cell arteritis ). Temporal arteritis is an inflammatory disease of medium-sized blood vessels that happens especially with advancing age. AAION occurs in about 15-20 percent of patients with temporal arteritis. Damage to the blood vessels supplying the optic nerves leads to insufficient blood supply (ischemia ) to the nerve and subsequent optic nerve fiber death. Most cases of AAION result in nearly complete vision loss first to one eye. If the temporal arteritis is left untreated, the fellow eye will likely suffer vision loss as well within 1–2 weeks. Arteritic AION falls under the general category of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, which also includes non-arteritic AION. AION is considered an eye emergency, immediate treatment is essential to rescue remaining vision.

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