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# More related articles

• ### Layer

Layer (in Sanskrit: "'कला"') or layered may refer to:

• ### Boundary layer thickness

This page describes some parameters used to measure the properties of boundary layers. Consider a stationary body with a fluid flowing around it, like the semi-infinite flat plate with air flowing over the top of the plate (assume the flow and the plate extends to infinity in the positive/negative direction perpendicular to the x − y {displaystyle x-y} plane). At the solid walls of the body the fluid satisfies a no-slip boundary condition and has zero velocity, but as you move away from the wall, the velocity of the flow asymptotically approaches the free stream mean velocity. Therefore, it is impossible to define a sharp point at which the boundary layer becomes the free stream, yet this layer has a well-defined characteristic thickness. The parameters below provide a useful definition of this characteristic, measurable thickness. Also included in this boundary layer description are some parameters useful in describing the shape of the boundary layer.

• ### Creamy layer

Creamy layer is a term used in Indian politics to refer to the relatively forward and better educated members of the Other Backward Classes (OBCs), who are not eligible for government-sponsored educational and professional benefit programs. The term was introduced by the Sattanathan Commission in 1971, which directed that the "creamy layer" should be excluded from the reservations (quotas) of civil posts.

• ### Dua's layer

Dua's layer, according to a 2013 paper by Harminder Singh Dua's group at the University of Nottingham, is a layer of the cornea that had not been detected previously. It is hypothetically 15 micrometres (0.59 mils ) thick, the fourth caudal layer, and located between the corneal stroma and Descemet's membrane. Despite its thinness, the layer is very strong and impervious to air. It is strong enough to withstand up to 2 bars (200 kPa ) of pressure. While some scientists welcomed the announcement, other scientists cautioned that time was needed for other researchers to confirm the discovery and its significance. Others have met the claim "with incredulity". The choice of the name Dua's Layer has also been criticized.

• ### Stokes boundary layer

In fluid dynamics, Stokes problem also known as Stokes second problem or sometimes referred to as Stokes boundary layer or Oscillating boundary layer is a problem of determining the flow created by an oscillating solid surface, named after Sir George Stokes. This is considered as one of the simplest unsteady problem that have exact solution for the Navier-Stokes equations . In turbulent flow, this is still named a Stokes boundary layer, but now one has to rely on experiments, numerical simulations or approximate methods in order to obtain useful information on the flow.

• ### Boundary layer suction

Boundary layer suction is a boundary layer control technique in which an air pump is used to extract the boundary layer at the wing or the inlet of an aircraft. Improving the air flow can reduce drag. Improvements in fuel efficiency have been estimated as high as 30%.

• ### Layer 8

Layer 8 is a term used to refer to "user" or "political" layer on top of the 7-layer OSI model of computer networking.

• ### Perfectly matched layer

A perfectly matched layer (PML) is an artificial absorbing layer for wave equations, commonly used to truncate computational regions in numerical methods to simulate problems with open boundaries, especially in the FDTD and FE methods. The key property of a PML that distinguishes it from an ordinary absorbing material is that it is designed so that waves incident upon the PML from a non-PML medium do not reflect at the interface—this property allows the PML to strongly absorb outgoing waves from the interior of a computational region without reflecting them back into the interior.

• ### Datagram Transport Layer Security

Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) is a communications protocol that provides security for datagram -based applications by allowing them to communicate in a way that is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, or message forgery. The DTLS protocol is based on the stream -oriented Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol and is intended to provide similar security guarantees. The DTLS protocol datagram preserves the semantics of the underlying transport—the application does not suffer from the delays associated with stream protocols, but because it uses UDP, the application has to deal with packet reordering, loss of datagram and data larger than the size of a datagram network packet. Because DTLS uses UDP rather than TCP, it avoids the "TCP meltdown problem". when being used to create a VPN tunnel.

• ### ATM Adaptation Layer 2

ATM Adaptation Layer 2 (AAL2) is an ATM adaptation layer for Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), used primarily in telecommunications; for example, it is used for the Iu interfaces in the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, and is also used for transporting digital voice. The standard specifications related to AAL2 are ITU standards I.363.2 and I366.1.

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