A white, crystalline, tasteless substance, found in the milky sap of species of Lactuca, and constituting an essential ingredient of lactucarium.
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Stephanomeria lactucina is a species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common names lettuce wirelettuce and woodland wirelettuce. It is native to Oregon and California, where it grows in coastal and inland mountain ranges, including the Sierra Nevada. It can be found in many types of habitat, including coniferous forests. It is rhizomatous perennial herb producing a slender, erect stem reaching 30 to 60 centimeters in maximum height. The linear or lance-shaped leaves are up to 8 centimeters long and their edges are lined with widely spaced teeth. Solitary flower heads occur on erect peduncles. Each head contains up to 10 ray florets, each with an elongated tube and a fringed pink ligule roughly a centimeter long. The fruit is an achene tipped with a spreading cluster of long, plumelike pappus bristles.
Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are a class of sesquiterpenoids that contain a lactone ring. They are most often found in plants of the family Asteraceae (daisies, asters). Other plant families with SLs are Umbelliferae (celery, parsley, carrots) and Magnoliaciae (magnolias). A collection of colorless, lipophilic solids, SLs are a rich source of drugs. They can be allergenic and toxic in grazing livestock. Some are also found in corals such as Maasella edwardsi.
Lactucin is a bitter substance that forms a white crystalline solid and belongs to the group of sesquiterpene lactones. It is found in some varieties of lettuce and is an ingredient of lactucarium. It has been shown to have analgesic and sedative properties. It has also shown some antimalarial effects. It is also found in dandelion coffee.
Lactuca, commonly known as lettuce, is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family, Asteraceae. The genus includes at least 50 species, distributed worldwide, but mainly in temperate Eurasia.
Triacetic acid lactone
Triacetic acid lactone (TAL; 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-pyrone) is an organic compound derived enzymatically from glucose. It is a light yellow solid that is soluble in organic solvents.
Lactuca floridana, the woodland lettuce, is a North American species of wild lettuce. It is widespread across much of central Canada and the eastern and central United States from Ontario and Manitoba south as far as Texas, Louisiana, and Florida.