Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection by certain types of human papillomavirus. Available vaccines protect against either two, four or nine types of HPV. All vaccines protect against at least HPV types 16 and 18, which cause the greatest risk of cervical cancer. It is estimated that the vaccines may prevent 70% of cervical cancer, 80% of anal cancer, 60% of vaginal cancer, 40% of vulvar cancer and possibly some mouth cancer. They additionally prevent some genital warts, with the vaccines against HPV types 4 and 9 providing greater protection.
An HIV vaccine may have the purpose of protecting individuals who do not have HIV from being infected with the virus (a preventive vaccine), or treating an HIV-infected person (a therapeutic vaccine). There are two approaches to an HIV vaccine: an active vaccination approach in which a vaccine aims to induce an immune response against HIV; and a passive vaccination approach in which preformed antibodies against HIV are administered.
Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop protection from a disease. Vaccines contain a microorganism or virus in a weakened or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism. In stimulating the body's adaptive immunity, they help prevent sickness from an infectious disease. When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, herd immunity results. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio and tetanus from much of the world.
The MMRV vaccine combines the attenuated virus MMR (measles, mumps, rubella ) vaccine with the addition of chickenpox vaccine or varicella vaccine (V stands for varicella ). The MMRV vaccine is typically given to children between 1 and 2 years of age.
Zoster vaccines are two vaccines that have been shown to reduce the rates of herpes zoster (also known as shingles). One type, Zostavax, is essentially a larger-than-normal dose of the chickenpox vaccine, as both shingles and chickenpox are caused by the same virus, the varicella zoster virus (VZV). A recombinant version, Shingrix, was approved in the United States in 2017.
Pertussis vaccine is a vaccine that protects against whooping cough (pertussis). There are two main types: whole-cell vaccines and acellular vaccines. The whole-cell vaccine is about 78% effective while the acellular vaccine is 71–85% effective. The effectiveness of the vaccines appears to decrease by between 2 and 10% per year after vaccination with a more rapid decrease with the acellular vaccines. Vaccinating the mother during pregnancy may protect the baby. The vaccine is estimated to have saved over 500,000 lives in 2002.