A military dictatorship, also known as a military junta, is a dictatorship wherein the military exerts complete or substantial control over political authority, and a dictator is often a high ranked military officer.
American Aristocracy is a 1916 American silent adventure /comedy-drama film directed by Lloyd Ingraham and starring Douglas Fairbanks. A 35mm print of the film is preserved at the George Eastman House and is currently in the public domain.
Aristocracy of Norway refers to modern and medieval aristocracy in Norway. Additionally, there have been economical, political, and military élites that—relating to the main lines of Norway's history —are generally accepted as nominal predecessors of the aforementioned. Since the 16th century, modern aristocracy is known as nobility ( Norwegian: adel ).
Labor aristocracy or labour aristocracy (also aristocracy of labor) has at least four meanings: (1) as a term with Marxist theoretical underpinnings; (2) as a specific type of trade unionism; (3) as a shorthand description by revolutionary industrial unions (such as the Industrial Workers of the World ) for the bureaucracy of craft-based business unionism; and (4) in the 19th and early 20th centuries was also a phrase used to define better-off members of the working class (as used for example by Jack London in The People of the Abyss ).
Kalinowski was a notable Polish noble family, like many other Szlachta houses of the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Duchy of Ruthenia, later prominent in Polish, and to a lesser extent, in Belarusian history. They are descended from Andrzej Kalinowski (1465 – 1531). They used the Kalinowa Coat of Arms.
The "aristocracy of officials" or "civil service aristocracy" (Danish and Norwegian: embedsaristokratiet or embetsaristokratiet) is a term used by historians to denote the elite of university-educated higher state officials in Denmark and Norway from the early modern period until the 19th century. Particularly in Norway, which unlike Denmark had no significant nobility from the 17th century and which formally abolished nobility in 1821, the aristocracy of officials filled the vacant position at the top of society at the local, regional and national levels. This social group, principally constituted by priests, lawyers and doctors, has with reference to the 19th century also been called "the thousand academic families" by the historian Jens Arup Seip, and they comprised less than one per thousand in the overall population. By the 19th century Norway is widely considered to have been a "Civil Servant State," reflecting the role of the civil servants as "the most enduring, consistent and visible elite."