Alfaz in the principles of Islamic jurisprudence (Persian:الفاظ در علم اصول فقه) is a preliminary subject concerned with analysis of verbals and concepts due to acquiring religious judgments and sharia.These issues often deal with subjects in the fields of philosophy of language and semantics. The subject counteds as the oldest in the Principles of Islamic jurisprudence.
American Jurisprudence (second edition is cited as Am. Jur. 2d) is an encyclopedia of the United States law, published by West. It was originated by Lawyers Cooperative Publishing, which was subsequently acquired by the Thomson Corporation. The series is now in its second edition, launched in 1962. It is a staple of law libraries, and the current edition is over 140 volumes, updated with replacement volumes, annual pocket supplements, and a New Topic Service binder. The discussion has extensive research references to other Thomson West publications, including sister publications Am. Jur. Trials, Am. Jur. Proof of Facts, Am. Jur. Pleading and Practice Forms, and Am. Jur. Legal Forms. Before Thomson's acquisition of West Publishing, it was a competitor to Corpus Juris Secundum. Am. Jur. is available online through both Westlaw, and LexisNexis.
Islamic military jurisprudence refers to what has been accepted in Sharia (Islamic law) and Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) by Ulama (Islamic scholars) as the correct Islamic manner which is expected to be obeyed by Muslims in times of war. Some scholars and Muslim religious figures claim that armed struggle based on Islamic principles is referred to as the Lesser jihad.
The Imperial School of Jurisprudence (Russian: Императорское училище правоведения) was, along with the Page Corps, the most prestigious school for boys in Saint Petersburg, the capital of the Russian Empire.
Islamic hygienical jurisprudence includes a number of regulations involving cleanliness during salat (obligatory prayer) through Wudu and Ghusl, as well as dietary laws and toilet etiquette for Muslims. The fiqh is based on admonitions in the Qur'an for Muslims to be ritually clean whenever possible, as well as in hadith (words, actions, or habits of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ).