That branch of government in which judicial power is vested; the system of courts of justice in a country; the judges, taken collectively; as, an independent judiciary; the senate committee on the judiciary.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial sister, judicature, judicial branch or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in a country, state or an international community. The first legal systems of the world were set up to allow citizens to settle conflicts without violence.
The federal judiciary of the United States is one of the three co-equal branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government. Article III of the Constitution requires the establishment of a Supreme Court and permits the Congress to create other federal courts, and place limitations on their jurisdiction. Article III federal judges are appointed by the President with the consent of the Senate to serve until they resign, are impeached and convicted, retire, or die.
The judiciary of Mongolia is made up of a three-tiered court system (first instance, appellate, supreme court ) divided into three branches (civil, criminal, administrative cases ). For questions of constitutional law there is a separate constitutional court. Besides there are forms of alternative dispute resolution.
The 2003 Ringera Judiciary Report was a Kenya Government report published by the Integrity and Anti-Corruption Committee of the Judiciary in Kenya in order to implement a policy known as radical surgery introduced by the new government of President Mwai Kibaki. The committee was led by Justice Aaron Ringera.
The Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Border Security and Immigration was one of six subcommittees within the Senate Judiciary Committee during the 114th Congress. The judiciary subcommittee on immigration is called the Subcommittee on Border Security and Immigration for the 116th Congress and was called Immigration, Refugees, and Border Security during the 113th Congress.
The judiciary of Pakistan (Urdu: پاکستان کی عدلیہ) is a hierarchical system with two classes of courts: the superior (or higher) judiciary and the subordinate (or lower) judiciary. The superior judiciary is composed of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the Federal Shariat Court and five High Courts, with the Supreme Court at the apex. There is a High Court for each of the four provinces as well as a High Court for the Islamabad Capital Territory. The Constitution of Pakistan entrusts the superior judiciary with the obligation to preserve, protect and defend the constitution. Neither the Supreme Court nor a High Court may exercise jurisdiction in relation to Tribal Areas, except otherwise provided for. The disputed regions of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan have separate court systems.
The Judiciary of Russia interprets and applies the law of Russia. It is defined under the Constitution and law with a hierarchical structure with the Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, and Supreme Court of Arbitration at the apex. The district courts are the primary criminal trial courts, and the regional courts are the primary appellate courts. The judiciary is governed by the All-Russian Congress of Judges and its Council of Judges, and its management is aided by the Judicial Department of the Supreme Court, the Judicial Qualification Collegia, the Ministry of Justice, and the various courts' chairpersons. And although there are many officers of the court, including jurors, the Prosecutor General remains the most powerful component of the Russian judicial system.
In France, career judges are considered civil servants exercising one of the sovereign powers of the state, so French citizens are eligible for judgeship, but not citizens of the other EU countries. France's independent court system enjoys special statutory protection from the executive branch. Procedures for the appointment, promotion, and removal of judges vary depending on whether it is for the ordinary ("judiciaire") or administrative stream. Judicial appointments in the judicial stream must be approved by a special panel, the High Council of the Judiciary. Once appointed, career judges serve for life and cannot be removed without specific disciplinary proceedings conducted before the Council with due process.
The judicial system of Ukraine is outlined in the 1996 Constitution of Ukraine. Before this there was no notion of judicial review nor any Supreme Court since 1991's Ukrainian independence. when it started being slowly restructured.