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Ventriloquism, or ventriloquy, is an act of stagecraft in which a person (a ventriloquist) changes his or her voice so that it appears that the voice is coming from elsewhere, usually a puppeteered prop, known as a "dummy". The act of ventriloquism is ventriloquizing, and the ability to do so is commonly called in English the ability to "throw" one's voice.

History


Originally, ventriloquism was a religious practice.[1]Punch%20and%20Judy%20in%2019th%20Centu]]The name comes from the Latin for, i.e. (belly) and (speak).[2]Greekυθία). The noises produced by the stomach were thought to be the voices of the unliving, who took up residence in the stomach of the ventriloquist. The ventriloquist would then interpret the sounds, as they were thought to be able to speak to the dead, as well as foretell the future. One of the earliest recorded group of prophets to use this technique was the Pythia, the priestess at the temple of Apollo in Delphi, who acted as the conduit for the Delphic Oracle.

One of the most successful early gastromancers was Eurykles, a prophet at Athens; gastromancers came to be referred to as Euryklides in his honour.[3] In the Middle Ages, it was thought to be similar to witchcraft. One of the uses was by people pretending to be mediums or those claiming to be able to cast out evil spirits, and throwing the voice added to their credibility. It was not unusual for (particularly) women doing this to be accused and burnt as witches. As Spiritualism led to stage magic and escapology, so ventriloquism became more of a performance art as, starting around the 19th century, it shed its mystical trappings.

Other parts of the world also have a tradition of ventriloquism for ritual or religious purposes; historically there have been adepts of this practice among the Zulu, Inuit, and Māori peoples.[3]

The shift from ventriloquism as manifestation of spiritual forces toward ventriloquism as entertainment happened in the eighteenth century at the travelling funfairs and market towns. An early depiction of a ventriloquist dates to 1754 in England, where Sir John Parnell is depicted in the painting An Election Entertainment by William Hogarth as speaking via his hand.[4] In 1757, the Austrian Baron de Mengen performed with a small doll.[5]

By the late 18th century, ventriloquist performances were an established form of entertainment in England, although most performers threw their voice to make it appear that it emanated from far away, rather than the modern method of using a puppet.

The entertainment came of age during the era of the music hall in the United Kingdom and vaudeville in the United States. George Sutton began to incorporate a puppet act into his routine at Nottingham in the 1830s, but it is Fred Russell who is regarded as the father of modern ventriloquism. In 1886, he was offered a professional engagement at the Palace Theatre in London and took up his stage career permanently. His act, based on the cheeky-boy dummy "Coster Joe" that would sit in his lap and 'engage in a dialogue' with him was highly influential for the entertainment format and was adopted by the next generation of performers. (A blue plaque has been embedded in a former residence of Russell by the British Heritage Society which reads 'Fred Russell the father of ventriloquism lived here').[7]

Fred Russell's successful comedy team format was applied by the next generation of ventriloquists.

The art of ventriloquism was popularised by Y. K. Padhye in North India and M. M. Roy in South India, who are believed to be the pioneers of this field in India. Y. K. Padhye's son Ramdas Padhye borrowed from him and made the art popular amongst the masses through his performance on television. Ramdas Padhye's son Satyajit Padhye is also a ventriloquist. Similarly, Indusree a female ventriloquist from Bangalore has contributed a lot to the art. She performs with 3 dummies simultaneously. Venky Monkey and Mimicry Srinivos, the disciples of M. M. Roy, popularized this art by giving shows in India and abroad. Mimicrist Srinivos, in particular, did several experiments in ventriloquism. He has popularized this art, calling it "Sound illusion." He goes into the audience without a microphone and entertains with point blank sound illusion in addition to entertaining on stage with dummies.

Ventriloquism's popularity waned for a while.

Making the right sounds


One difficulty ventriloquists face is that all the sounds that they make must be made with lips slightly separated.

Ventriloquist's dummy


Modern ventriloquists use a variety of different types of puppets in their presentations, ranging from soft cloth or foam puppets (Verna Finly's work is a pioneering example), flexible latex puppets (such as Steve Axtell's creations) and the traditional and familiar hard-headed knee figure (Tim Selberg's mechanized carvings). The classic dummies used by ventriloquists (the technical name for which is ventriloquial figure) vary in size anywhere from twelve inches tall to human-size and larger, with the height usually falling between thirty-four and forty-two inches. Traditionally, this type of puppet has been made from papier-mâché or wood. In modern times, other materials are often employed, including fiberglass-reinforced resins, urethanes, filled (rigid) latex, and neoprene.[11]

Great names in the history of dummy making include Jeff Dunham, Frank Marshall (the Chicago creator of Bergen's Charlie McCarthy,[12] Nelson's Danny O'Day,[12] and Winchell's Jerry Mahoney), Theo Mack and Son (Mack carved Charlie McCarthy's head), Revello Petee, Kenneth Spencer, Cecil Gough,[13] and Glen & George McElroy. The McElroy brothers' figures are still considered by many ventriloquists as the apex of complex movement mechanics, with as many as fifteen facial and head movements controlled by interior finger keys and switches. Jeff Dunham referred to his McElroy figure Skinny Duggan as "the Stradivarius of dummies." the Juro Novelty Company also manufactured dummies.

Films and programs which refer to dummies that are alive and frightening include Magic,[14] Dead of Night,[14] The Twilight Zone,[14] Devil Doll,[15]The%20Encyclopedia%20of%20Fantasti]] Dead Silence Goosebumps Seinfeld de "I'm Your Puppet"), Friday the 13th: The Series, Toy Story 4 and Doctor Who in different episodes. Literary examples of frightening ventriloquist dummies include Gerald Kersh's The Horrible Dummy and the story "The Glass Eye" by John Keir Cross. In music, NRBQ's video for their song Dummy [25] (2004) features four ventriloquist dummies modelled after the band members who 'lip-sync' the song while wandering around a dark, abandoned house.

See also


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