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Titan IV rocket launch from Space Launch Complex-4 East, Vandenberg AFB, 19 October 2005
Titan IV rocket launch from Space Launch Complex-4 East, Vandenberg AFB, 19 October 2005

Vandenberg Air Force Base (IATA: VBG, ICAO: KVBG, FAA LID: VBG) is a United States Air Force Base 9.2 miles (14.8 km) northwest of Lompoc, California. It is under the jurisdiction of the 30th Space Wing, Air Force Space Command (AFSPC).

Vandenberg AFB is a Department of Defense space and missile testing base, with a mission of placing satellites into polar orbit from the West Coast using expendable boosters (Pegasus, Taurus, Minotaur, Atlas V, and Delta IV) and reusable boosters (SpaceX's Falcon 9). Wing personnel also support the Service's LGM-30G Minuteman III Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Force Development Evaluation program.

In addition to its military mission, the base also leases launch pad facilities to SpaceX (SLC-4E), as well as 100 acres (40 ha) leased to the California Spaceport in 1995.

Established in 1941, the base is named in honor of former Air Force Chief of Staff General Hoyt Vandenberg.

Units


The host unit at Vandenberg AFB is the 30th Space Wing. The 30th SW is home to the Western Range, manages Department of Defense space and missile testing, and places satellites into near-polar orbits from the West Coast. Wing personnel also support the Air Force's Minuteman III Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Force Development Test and Evaluation program. The Western Range begins at the coastal boundaries of Vandenberg and extends westward from the California coast to the Western Pacific, including sites in Hawaii. Operations involve dozens of federal and commercial interests.

The wing is organized into operations, launch, mission support and medical groups, along with several directly assigned staff agencies.

  • 30th Mission Support Group
  • 30th Medical Group

Tenant organizations assigned to Vandenberg are:

The Space and Missile Heritage Center is located at Space Launch Complex 10, site of the first IRBM tests of the Thor and Discoverer (aka CORONA spy satellite) series of launches. It is Vandenberg's only National Historic Landmark that is open for regularly scheduled tours through the 30th Space Wing's Public Affairs office. The Center preserves and displays artifacts and memorabilia to interpret the evolution of missile and spacelift activity at Vandenberg from the beginning of the Cold War through current non-classified developments in military, commercial, and scientific space endeavors.

The current display area is made up of two exhibits, the "Chronology of the Cold War" and the "Evolution of Technology".

History


In 1941 the United States Army sought more and better training centers for the rapid development of its armored and infantry forces. In March 1941, the Army acquired approximately 86,000 acres (35,000 ha) of open ranch lands along the Central Coast of California between Lompoc and Santa Maria. Most of the land was purchased. Smaller parcels were obtained either by lease, license, or as easements. With its flat plateau, surrounding hills, numerous canyons, and relative remoteness from populated areas, the Army was convinced it had found the ideal training location.[4]

Construction of the Army camp began in September 1941.

General Cooke was a cavalry officer whose military career spanned almost half a century, beginning with his graduation from West Point in 1827 to his retirement in 1873. He participated in the Mexican War, the Indian Wars, and the Civil War. A native of Virginia, General Cooke remained loyal to the Union during the Civil War. Perhaps his most enduring achievement came when as a colonel during the Mexican War, he led a battalion of Mormons from Missouri to California. The route led by Colonel Cooke in 1847 opened the first wagon route to California, and today the railroad follows much of the early wagon trails.[4]

Although the construction of Camp Cooke continued well into 1942, troop training did not wait.

Besides the 5th Division, the 6th, 11th, 13th, and 20th Armored Divisions as well as the 86th and 97th Infantry Divisions, and the 2nd Filipino Infantry Regiment were all stationed at Cooke at varying times during the war.

As the war progressed, German and Italian prisoners of war (the latter organized into Italian Service Units) were quartered at Camp Cooke.

A maximum security army disciplinary barracks was constructed on post property in 1946.

From August 1950 to February 1953, Camp Cooke served as a training installation for units slated for combat in Korea, and as a summer training base for many other reserve units. On 1 February 1953, the camp was again inactivated. The disciplinary barracks, meanwhile, was transferred to the U.S. Bureau of Prisons to house civilian offenders in August 1959. Today it is known as the United States Penitentiary, Lompoc.[4]

In September 2000, veterans of the 40th Infantry Division gathered at Vandenberg Air Force Base to dedicate its Korean War Memorial.

World War II

Korean War

With the advent of the missile age in the 1950s, an urgent need arose for an adequate training site that could also serve as America's first combat ready missile base.

In September 1956, Secretary of the Air Force, Donald A. Quarles accepted the committee's recommendation. A few weeks later, on 16 November 1956, Secretary of Defense Charles E. Wilson directed the Army to transfer 64,000 acres (26,000 ha) of North Camp Cooke to the United States Air Force for use as a missile launch and training base. In June 1957, North Camp Cooke was renamed Cooke Air Force Base, and on 21 June 1957 was transferred to the Air Force. In January, however, the Air Force, had received access to the camp, and with the arrival of the first airman in February, established on the 15th the 6591st Support Squadron. The initial mission of Cooke AFB was to serve both as a training site for the PGM-17 Thor, SM-65 Atlas, and HGM-25A Titan I missiles, and as an emergency operational facility for Atlas ICBM.[4][6]

The scene that met the first airmen to the base was a cluttered mass of dilapidated World War II buildings amid weeds and brush growing everywhere.

To operate Cooke AFB, the 392d Air Base Group was activated, replacing the 6591st Support Squadron on 15 April 1957.

The launching of the Russian Sputnik 1 satellite into orbit on 4 October 1957, followed a month later by Sputnik 2 that carried a dog into space, had military implications and caused an immediate acceleration of the United States Air Force's missile program. As part of the acceleration, on 23 November 1957, the Department of Defense authorized the peacetime launching of ballistic missiles from Cooke AFB. The Air Force transferred management responsibilities for Cooke AFB from ARDC to the Strategic Air Command (SAC) on 1 January 1958. Along with the transfer, SAC acquired the three ARDC base organizations and responsibility for attaining initial operational capability (IOC) for the nascent U.S. missile force. Their mission also included training missile launch crews.[4]

The reorganization allowed ARDC to retain responsibility for site activation as well as research and development testing of ballistic missiles, also known as Category II testing.

On 12 February 1958, the Department of Defense transferred executive responsibility for the Jupiter IRBM from the Department of the Army to the Air Force.

On 1 January 1958, Lieutenant General David Wade of Louisiana was assigned as commander of the 1st Missile Division at Vandenberg. There he commanded the first operational missile unit in Air Force history. His commission was two-fold: (1) maintain operational capability with intercontinental ballistic missiles, and (2) establish operational readiness training for the missile crews of the SAC missile sites. Wade worked to develop the Discoverer, Samos, and Midas orbiting satellite programs.[7]

The southern portion of Cooke AFB (formerly Camp Cooke), consisting of more than 19,800 acres (8,000 ha), was transferred to the U.S. Navy in May 1958. The Navy was in the process of establishing a Pacific Missile Range (PMR) with a headquarters 100 miles (160 km) south of Cooke at Point Mugu, and instrumentation sites along the California coast and at various islands down range in the Pacific Ocean. The property it acquired was renamed the Naval Missile Facility at Point Arguello. It became a major launch head and range safety center for all missile and satellite launch operations conducted within the PMR.[4]

On 16 November 1963, Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara ordered a restructuring in the way the Department of Defense managed and operated its missile ranges and flight test facilities across the nation. Part of the force restructuring had the Navy transfer major sections of its Pacific Missile Range, including its Point Arguello installation, to the Air Force in two parts. The first transfer occurred on 1 July 1964. In the second part of the transfer, remote properties and mobile resources, explained in detail in the next section, were handed over to Vandenberg on 1 February 1965.[4]

With the Navy's missile program and range authorities scaled back to the area around Point Mugu, the Air Force now assumed full responsibility for missile range safety at Vandenberg and over much of the Pacific Ocean.

The final land acquisition at Vandenberg occurred on 1 March 1966, after the Air Force had announced plans to construct Space Launch Complex 6 for its Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program. Flight safety corridors for the Titan III MOL vehicle reportedly extended south of Point Arguello and inland to an area known as Sudden Ranch. The Air Force sought to purchase this property, but when negotiations with the Sudden Estate Company failed to reach a compromise purchase price, the government turned to condemnation proceedings (under the power of eminent domain). By filing a Declaration of Taking with the federal court in Los Angeles, it obtained almost 15,000 acres (6,100 ha) of Sudden Ranch. Finalized on 20 December 1968, the federal court established $9,002,500 as the purchase price for the land. The total amount paid to the company with interest was $9,842,700.[4]

The annexation of Sudden Ranch increased the size of the base to its present 99,099 acres (40,104 ha).

On 4 October 1958, Cooke AFB was renamed Vandenberg AFB, in honor of General Vandenberg, the Air Force's second Chief of Staff.[4]

The transition from Army camp to missile base solidified on 15 December 1958 when Vandenberg AFB successfully launched its first missile, a PGM-17 Thor IRBM (Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile) The launch from Vandenberg inaugurated the intermediate-range ballistic missile portion of the Pacific Missile Range and was fired by a crew from the 1st Missile Division. The first successful launch of a Thor IRBM by a Royal Air Force crew took place at Vandenberg AFB on 16 April 1959. The launch was part of integrated weapon system training. In October, the first combat training launch of a Thor IRBM by a Royal Air Force crew was successful.

On 22 April 1960, the fourth and final British-based Thor IRBM squadron was turned over to the Royal Air Force by the Strategic Air Command, thus completing the deployment of this weapon system in the United Kingdom. The next month, the first missile to be removed from an operational unit and sent to Vandenberg AFB for confidence firing arrived from a Thor IRBM squadron (No. 98 Squadron RAF) in the United Kingdom. Confidence firing was the predecessor of SAC's operational test program.[4][6]

On 16 October 1958, the first Atlas ICBM launcher (576A-1) constructed at Vandenberg AFB, California, was accepted from the contractor by the 1st Missile Division.

In July 1959, construction began on the first Series E Atlas ICBM coffin-type launcher (Atlas operational system test facility #1).

During its testing phase, Vandenberg would operate two Atlas-D launch complexes; two Atlas-E, and three Atlas-F silos.[8] The Atlas-Ds were taken off alert at the 576th Strategic Missile Squadron (Complex 576B) in May 1964 as part of the phaseout of the Atlas from active ICBM service.

The Atlas would remain in use as a launch vehicle for satellites from Vandenberg as a space booster configured with an RM-81 Agena upper-stage rocket and the Atlas-Agena would launch many different types of satellites into orbit until its phaseout in the late 1980s.[4]

The HGM-25A Titan I was the United States' first multistage ICBM. When designed and manufactured, the Titan I provided an additional nuclear deterrent to complement the U.S. Air Force's SM-65 Atlas missile. It was the first in a series of Titan rockets, and was an important step in building the Air Force's strategic nuclear forces.

In July 1958 construction began on the Titan I ICBM Operational System Test Facility (OSTF).

The first "silo-lift" launch of the Titan I was successful in September 1961, and the first SAC launch of the ICBM was successful in January 1962.

However, the operational lifetime of the Titan I was short, as Secretary of Defense McNamara announced in November 1964 that all remaining first-generation ICBMs (Series E and F Atlas and Titan I) would be phased out (Project Added Effort) by the end of June 1965.[6]

On 5 March 1965, the last test launch of a Titan I ICBM conducted by the Strategic Air Command at Vandenberg was successful.

The LGM-25C Titan II ICBM was a second-generation ICBM with storable propellants, all inertial guidance, and in-silo launch capability. Construction of the first Titan II site began in 1962, and eventually Vandenberg operated four Titan II launch complexes.[9][6]

Most of the testing of the missile was done at Cape Canaveral AFS, Florida by the 6555th Aerospace Test Group, and the first successful underground silo launch of a Titan II ICBM took place at Vandenberg by the 395th SMS in April 1963. The first fully operational test took place in March 1965.[6]

On 25 March 1966, the 200th SAC missile launched from Vandenberg AFB, California was a Titan II.

The advent of solid-propellant gave the three-stage LGM-30 Minuteman ICBM a major advantage over earlier liquid propellant ICBMs. In February 1961 construction began on Minuteman ICBM test launch facilities at Vandenberg. Silos 394A-1 through A-7 were the first constructed for use by the SAC 394th Strategic Missile Squadron.[10][4][6]

LGM-30A Minuteman IA flight tests began in September 1962. The first Minuteman IB test took place in May 1963. On 24 February 1966, the first attempted salvo (simultaneous) launch of two model "A" Minuteman I ICBMs from Vandenberg silos LF-04 (394A-3) and LF-06 (394-A5) was successful. This launch demonstrated the multiple countdown and launch techniques that would be used at operational bases under actual combat conditions. Minuteman I testing continued until 1968.[10][6]

LGM-30F Minuteman II testing began in August 1965 with the first launch conducted by Air Force Systems Command, was successful. The missile flew 5,000 miles (8,000 km) down the Pacific Missile Range and its reentry vehicle impacted in the target area.[6]

On 22 October 1970, the first attempted OT GT70F (Salvo) operational test launch (simultaneous) launch of two Minuteman II ICBMs was successful from LF-25 and LF-26.

The first LGM-30G Minuteman III phase II operational test was launched on 5 December 1972 from the LF-02 silo. The ICBM flew 800 miles (1,300 km) downrange before impacting in the Pacific Ocean. This was the beginning of Minuteman III launches which continue to this day from Vandenberg.[6]

In July 1974, the initial training of Minuteman missile combat crews, formerly performed by Air Training Command (ATC) instructors at Vandenberg AFB, California, was incorporated into the 4315th Combat Crew Training Squadron's Operational Readiness Training (ORT) program at Vandenberg.

SAC launched two Minuteman III ICBMs from Vandenberg AFB during exercise Global Shield, a comprehensive exercise of SAC's nuclear forces on 10 July 1979 from LF 08 and LF 09.

Glory Trip 77GM, a Minuteman III Operational Test in September 1980, became the longest Minuteman flight test when its payload impacted a broad ocean area target over 5,600 nautical miles (10,400 km) downrange.[6]

The last ICBM tested from Vandenberg was the LGM-118 Peacekeeper (MX) ICBM beginning in June 1983. In addition to having a longer range than earlier ICBMs, the Peacekeeper could deliver up to 10 reentry vehicles to separate targets.[4] It was intended as a replacement for the LGM-30 Minuteman, but it suffered from a long development time, and was retired in 2005 before the Minuteman because of arms reduction treaties.

The first Peacekeeper ICBM was launched by Air Force Systems Command from an aboveground canister-type launch facility from TP-01 on 17 June 1983.

The first Peacekeeper with a Mark-21 test reentry vehicle was flight-tested from TP-01 on 15 June 1984.

The first silo launch from LF-05 took place on 24 August 1985 from LF-08.

A new Peacekeeper Missile Procedures Trainer was dedicated in March 1987.

LGM-118 Peacekeeper test launches continued from Vandenberg with a third silo, LF-05 becoming operational in March 1990.

The latest missile deployed at Vandenberg in 2005 is the Ground-based Interceptor (GBI) missile Suborbital booster for the US Missile Defense Agency's Ground-based Midcourse Defense system's EKV ballistic missile kill vehicle. It is part of a National missile defense system advocated by president George W. Bush. The OBV is under development by Orbital Sciences; for every interceptor missile there is a missile silo and a Silo Interface Vault (SIV), which is an underground electronics room adjacent to the silo.[4] The basic OBV consists of the upper three stages and guidance system from the Taurus orbital launch vehicle (essentially a wingless Pegasus-XL). The developmental OBV is launched from an open pad; the operational version is to be silo-launched.[13]

The first test firing of the OVB took place from former Atlas-F pad 576-E on 6 February 2003.

Vandenberg launched the world's first polar orbiting satellite, Discoverer I on 28 February 1959. The launch vehicle for this mission consisted of a Thor-Agena combination.[4]

The Discoverer series of satellites provided other significant firsts for Vandenberg.

Shrouded in a cover story of scientific research, Discoverer was actually the cover name for Corona, America's first photo reconnaissance satellite program.

Over the years, unmanned satellites of every description and purpose, including international satellites, were placed in orbit from Vandenberg by a widening variety of boosters.

The most ambitious Air Force endeavors at Vandenberg were the Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) and the Space Shuttle programs. The MOL vehicle consisted of a Titan III booster carrying a modified Gemini space capsule (Gemini B) attached to a space laboratory. Construction work for MOL began at Space Launch Complex 6 (SLC-6) on South Vandenberg in March 1966. President Richard Nixon canceled the estimated $3 billion program in June 1969, as a result of cost overruns, completion delays, emerging new technologies, and the expense of fighting the Vietnam War. SLC-6 remained closed for the next decade.[4]

In 1972, Vandenberg was selected as the West Coast Space Shuttle launch and landing site, but it was never used as such.

Space Launch Complex 6 (SLC-6, pronounced as "Slick Six"), originally built for the abandoned Manned Orbital Laboratory project, was extensively modified for shuttle operations. Over $4 billion was spent on the modifications to the complex and construction of associated infrastructure. The original Mobile Service Tower (MST) was lowered in height and two new flame ducts were added for the shuttle's solid rocket boosters. Additional modifications or improvements, included liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen storage tanks, a payload preparation room, payload changeout room, a new launch tower with escape system for the shuttle crewmembers, sound suppression system and water reclamation area and a Shuttle Assembly Building were added to the original complex.

The existing 8,500-foot (2,590 m) runway and overruns on the North Base flightline were lengthened to 15,000 feet (4,580 m) to accommodate end-of-mission landings, along with construction of the Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) lights/large triangle arrows at both ends of the runway. Turn-around servicing and refurbishing of the Space Shuttle orbiter would be accomplished in the adjacent Orbiter Maintenance and Checkout Facility (OMCF). The Mate-Demate Facility, to load and unload the Orbiter from the Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), was changed from the large structure found at Dryden Flight Research Center and Kennedy Space Center, to a transportable "erector set-like" Orbiter Lifting Frame (OLF). This facility design change was due to the possibility of needing to support a landing at a location where there was no facility to load the Orbiter onto the SCA. The OLF could be disassembled, loaded onto two C-5 aircraft, shipped to the overseas Orbiter landing site, and reassembled to load the Orbiter onto the Boeing 747. To transport the Orbiter from the OMCF (on North Vandenberg AFB) to SLC-6, the 22-mile (35 km) route was upgraded to accommodate a 76-wheeled vehicle, built by Commetto in Italy specifically to carry the Orbiter on its large flat deck utilizing the three external tank interface points, versus towing the Orbiter on its landing gear that long distance.

Modification of SLC-6 to support polar missions had been problematic and expensive.[15] SLC-6 was still being prepared for its first Shuttle launch, mission STS-62-A targeted for 15 October 1986, when the Challenger disaster grounded the Shuttle fleet and set in motion a chain of events that finally led to the decision to cancel all west coast shuttle launches. The orbiter transporter was sent to Kennedy Space Center in Florida after the Vandenberg AFB launch site was abandoned and was used to transport the Orbiter from the Orbiter Processing Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building.

Persistent site technical problems and a joint decision by the Air Force and NASA to consolidate Shuttle operations at the Kennedy Space Center, following the Challenger disaster in 1986, resulted in the official termination of the Shuttle program at Vandenberg on 26 December 1989.

Had the space shuttle program been successful at SLC-6, the West Coast operation would have contrasted with that at the Kennedy Space Center by creating the orbiter stack directly on the launch pad, rather than assembling it and then moving it. Three movable buildings on rails, the Launch Tower, Mobile Service Building and Payload Changeout Room were used to assemble the Shuttle orbiter, external tank and SRBs. These buildings were designed to protect the shuttle "stack" from high winds in the area and were used during a series of "fit tests" utilizing the space shuttle Enterprise in 1985.

Since the demise of the shuttle program at Vandenberg, SLC 6 was once again reconfigured, this time to support polar-orbit satellite launches by the new Delta IV family of launch vehicles, utilizing a Common Core Booster for class sizes all the way up to and including the Delta IV (Heavy) launcher. As it is currently configured, the 132-acre (53 ha) launch site features structures similar to Boeing's Delta IV SLC-37 launch site at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, with a Fixed Umbilical Tower, Mobile Service Tower, Fixed Pad Erector, Launch Control Center and Operations Building, and a Horizontal Integration Facility. SLC-6 also features a Mobile Assembly Shelter that protects the rocket from adverse weather.

The first of the Delta IV launch vehicles to fly from SLC 6 successfully lifted off at 8:33 pm.

The Atlas V was developed by Lockheed Martin as part of the United States Air Force Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) program. The Atlas V launches from Space Launch Complex 3-E. Lockheed Martin Commercial Launch Services markets the Atlas V to government and commercial customers worldwide.[16]

The first Atlas V launch vehicle to fly from SLC 3-E was launched on 19 March 2008 for the National Reconnaissance Office.[17]

All Atlas V launches from Vandenberg have been successful.

SpaceX briefly used SLC-3W during the early development of the Falcon 1 launch vehicle,[18][19] and later moved operations to Space Launch Complex 4-East (SLC 4E). SpaceX refurbished SLC–4E for Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy launches,[20] in a 24-month process that began in early 2011.[21] The draft environmental impact assessment with a finding of "no significant impact" was published in February 2011.[21] Demolition began on the pad's fixed and mobile service towers in summer 2011.[22]

By late 2012, SpaceX continued to anticipate that the initial launch from the Vandenberg pad would be in 2013, but would be a Falcon 9 launch—actually, a heavily modified and much larger Falcon 9 v1.1.[23] As the pad was nearing completion in February 2013, the first Falcon 9 launch was scheduled for summer 2013[24] and was finally launched on 29 September 2013. This was the maiden flight of the Falcon 9 v1.1 evolution, carrying Canada's CASSIOPE satellite.[25]. In October 2018 SpaceX landed a Falcon 9 booster on a Vandenberg ground pad for the first time.[26]

The Boeing X-37B, a reusable unmanned spacecraft operated by USAF which is also known as the Orbital Test Vehicle (OTV), has landed at Vandenberg in the past.[27] On 3 December 2010 the X-37B spaceplane successfully landed at the base after 224 days in space thus performing the first autonomous orbital landing onto a runway conducted by a U.S spacecraft. Since then, the X-37B has successfully landed on the 15,000-foot runway at Vandenberg two more times, on 16 June 2012 after 468 days in orbit and again on 14 October 2014 after 674 days in orbit. All of the X-37B missions thus far have been launched from Florida, the first four using expendable Atlas V rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and the fifth on a reusable SpaceX Falcon 9 from Kennedy Space Center.

  • 1st Strategic Aerospace Division, 16 July 1957 – 1 September 1991
  • 392d Strategic Missile Wing, 18 October – 20 December 1961
  • Space and Missile Test Center, 1 April 1970 – 1 July 1980
  • Air Force Space Test Center, Provisional, 2 January – 15 May 1964
  • Air Force Western Test Range, 5 May 1964 – 1 April 1970
  • 644th Strategic Missile Squadron, 15 January – 1 November 1959
  • 670th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron, 5 May 1950 – 2 August 1951
  • 4315th Combat Crew Training Squadron, 1 May 1958 – 15 January 1991

[28]Air%20Force%20Bases%20Volume%20I%2C%20Active]][29][30]

Vandenberg AFB had scheduled passenger airline service during the 1960s operated by Pacific Air Lines and successor Air West which was subsequently renamed Hughes Airwest following the acquisition of Air West by aviation pioneer Howard Hughes.[31] Pacific Air Lines operated Martin 4-0-4 propliner aircraft into the base which were then followed by Fairchild F-27 turboprop service with these F-27 flights being continued by Air West. Round trip routes operated by Pacific and Air West included San Francisco (SFO) – Paso Robles (PRB) – Santa Maria (SMX) – Vandenberg AFB (VBG) – Oxnard (OXR) – Los Angeles (LAX) with some flights also making a stop at San Jose (SJC). Airline passenger access to the base was restricted with the following statement appearing in the 1 July 1964 Pacific Air Lines system timetable: "Only Department of Defense and/or Department of Defense sponsored contractor traffic may enplane or deplane at Vandenberg AFB." The 1 July 1968 Air West system timetable contained this statement: "Passengers for Vandenberg AFB are subject to Military Security Control."

Geography


The United States Census Bureau has designated the base as its own census-designated place for statistical purposes. The census-designated place has a total area of 57.3 km2 (22.1 sq mi). 57.1 km2 (22.0 sq mi) of it is land and 0.087 km2 (0.034 sq mi) of it (0.39%) is water.[32]

Much of the base is rugged, mountainous, and undeveloped; predominant groundcover includes chaparral with coastal sage scrub and oak woodland. Because of its protected nature—none of the backcountry areas are open to the public or to any kind of development—the base contains some of the highest quality coastal habitat remaining in southern or central California. It is home to numerous threatened or endangered species, including Gambel's watercress (Nasturtium gambellii*).[34] The western terminus of the Santa Ynez Mountains is on the base, and is dominated by Tranquillion Peak, which rises 2,297 feet (700 m) above sea level. An optical tracking station is located at the top of the peak, which overlooks the various space launch complexes. The Amtrak Coast Starlight and Pacific Surfliner trains travel along the coast, providing a splendid view and one of the few ways for the public to see these remote areas. Conversely, State Route 1, California's Pacific Coast Highway, avoids these coastal protected areas and instead turns inland to serve the base's eastern side.

Surf Beach is open to the public, while Wall and Minuteman Beaches are restricted to those with regular access to the base. Sections of these three beaches are closed between 1 March and 30 September every year during the nesting season of the Western Snowy Plover.[35] The closures are in place to protect the bird under the Endangered Species Act. If a set number of trespass violations have been reached during any nesting season (50 for Surf, 10 for Wall, 10 for Minuteman), the beach is closed entirely.[36]

Surf Beach is adjacent to the Surf Amtrak station, just south of Ocean Beach Park, run by the Santa Barbara County Parks Division.[37] On 22 October 2010, 19-year-old Lucas Ransom, a UCSB student, was killed by a great white shark near Surf Beach.[38] On 23 October 2012, 38-year-old Francisco Javier Solorio Jr. was killed by a shark near Ocean Beach.[39]

Snowy Plovers nest on the beach.[40]

Demographics


The 2010 United States Census[41] reported that Vandenberg AFB had a population of 3,338. The population density was 150.9 people per square mile (58.3/km2). The racial makeup of Vandenberg AFB was 2,317 (69.4%) White, 307 (9.2%) African American, 26 (0.8%) Native American, 207 (6.2%) Asian, 24 (0.7%) Pacific Islander, 140 (4.2%) from other races, and 317 (9.5%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 616 persons (18.5%).

The Census reported that 2,952 people (88.4% of the population) lived in households, 378 (11.3%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 8 (0.2%) were institutionalized.

There were 858 households, out of which 655 (76.3%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 730 (85.1%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 57 (6.6%) had a female householder with no husband present, 31 (3.6%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 4 (0.5%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 3 (0.3%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 38 households (4.4%) were made up of individuals and 1 (0.1%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.44. There were 818 families (95.3% of all households); the average family size was 3.54.

The population was spread out with 1,287 people (38.6%) under the age of 18, 610 people (18.3%) aged 18 to 24, 1,338 people (40.1%) aged 25 to 44, 97 people (2.9%) aged 45 to 64, and 6 people (0.2%) who were 65 years of age or older.

There were 1,035 housing units at an average density of 46.8 per square mile (18.1/km2), of which 12 (1.4%) were owner-occupied, and 846 (98.6%) were occupied by renters.

As of the census[42] of 2000, there were 6,151 people, 1,707 households, and 1,601 families residing in the base.

There are 1,707 households, out of which 72% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 87% were married couples living together, 3.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 6.2% were non-families.

In the base, the population was spread out with 38% under the age of 18, 15.2% from 18 to 24, 45% from 25 to 44, 1.9% from 45 to 64, and 0.2% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median income for a household in the base was $39,444, and the median income for a family was $40,000.

Vandenberg supports a population greater than 18,000, composed of military, family members, government contractors, and civilian employees.

The majority of the workforce that does not live on base resides in the immediate northern Santa Barbara county communities of Lompoc, Vandenberg Village, Santa Ynez, Orcutt or Santa Maria. A small percentage commute from as far south as Santa Barbara and Isla Vista to as far north as the Five Cities area near San Luis Obispo, which are all roughly an hour's drive along U.S. Route 101 and State Route 1 to the base's five access gates.

The base's ZIP code is 93437 and its area code 805.

State and federal representation


In the California State Legislature, Vandenberg AFB is in the 19th Senate District, represented by Democrat Hannah-Beth Jackson, and in the 35th Assembly District, represented by Republican Jordan Cunningham.[43]

In the United States House of Representatives, Vandenberg AFB is in California's 24th congressional district, represented by Democrat Salud Carbajal.[44]

In popular culture


In the 2000 PC video game Deus Ex, Vandenberg AFB is used as a base of operations by X-51, a dissident group of former Area 51 scientists and soldiers.

See also


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