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Tupi–Guarani (medium pink), other Tupian (violet), and probable range c. 1500 (pink-grey)
Tupi–Guarani (medium pink), other Tupian (violet), and probable range c. 1500 (pink-grey)

Tupi–Guarani (pronunciation ) is the name of the most widely distributed subfamily of the Tupian languages of South America. It includes fifty languages, including the best-known languages of the family, Guarani and Old Tupi.

The words petunia, jaguar, piranha, ipecac, tapioca, jacaranda, anhinga, carioca, and capoeira are of Tupi–Guarani origin.

Classification


Rodrigues & Cabral (2012) propose eight branches of Tupí–Guaraní:

Cabral argues that Kokama/Omagua is a mixed language, and so not directly classifiable, though most of its basic vocabulary is Tupi–Guarani.

Not listed in Rodrigues & Cabral

Karipuna language (Amapá) may be spurious.

Michael, et al. (2015) propose the following classification for the Tupi-Guarani languages.

O'Hagan (2014)[2] proposes that Proto-Tupi-Guarani was spoken in the region of the lower Tocantins and Xingu Rivers. Proto-Omagua-Kokama then expanded up the Amazon River, Proto-Tupinamba expanded south along the Atlantic coast, and the Southern branch expanded up along the Tocantins/Araguaia River towards the Parana River basin.

See also


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