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Carjacking is a robbery in which the item taken over is a motor vehicle.[1] A common crime in many places in the world, carjacking has been the subject of legislative responses, criminology studies, and prevention efforts. Commercial vehicles such as trucks and armored cars may be targets of hijacking attempts.

The term carjacking was coined in 1991.

Etymology


The word is a portmanteau of car and hijacking. The term was coined by Scott Bowles and EJ Mitchell with The Detroit News.[2] [3]The News first used the term in a 1991 report on the murder of Ruth Wahl, a 22-year-old Detroit drugstore cashier who was killed when she would not surrender her Suzuki Sidekick, and in an investigative report examining the rash of what Detroit Police call "robbery armed unlawful driving away an automobile" [in dispatch slang shortened to R.A.-YOU-Da] plaguing Detroit.[4]

Studies


A study published in the British Journal of Criminology in 2003 found that "for all of the media attention it has received in the United States, Europe and elsewhere, carjacking remains an under-researched and poorly understood crime."[5] The study authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 28 active carjackers in St. Louis, Missouri, and based on these interviews concluded that "the decision to commit a carjacking stems most directly from a situated interaction between particular sorts of perceived opportunities and particular sorts of perceived needs and desires, this decision is activated, mediated, and shaped by participation in urban street culture."[5]

A study published in the Journal of Contemporary Ethnography in 2013 noted that "carjacking requires offenders to neutralize victims who are inherently mobile and who can use their vehicles as both weapons and shields." The study noted that carjackers use fear to compel compliance from victims.[6]

A 2008 paper by the Australian Institute of Criminology conceptualized carjackings as falling into four types based on method and motive: organized and instrumental, organized and acquisitive, opportunistic and instrumental, and opportunistic and acquisitive. An example of an organized and instrumental carjacking is a planned carjacking with a weapon to use the vehicle for ram an ATM to steal cash. An example of an organized and acquisitive carjacking is a planned carjacking to sell the vehicle in a known market. An example of an opportunistic and instrumental carjacking is a carjacking without a weapon to sell "vehicle/parts with no market in mind." An example of an opportunistic and acquisitive carjacking is a carjacking without a weapon to joyride.[7]

A 2017 qualitative study published in Justice Quarterly examined auto theft and carjacking in the context of "sanction threats" that promoted fear and influenced "crime preferences" among criminals, thereby redirecting ("channeling") criminal activity. The study showed that "auto thieves are reluctant to embrace the violence of carjacking due to concerns over sanction threat severity they attributed to carjacking—both formal (higher sentences) and informal (victim resistance and retaliation). Meanwhile, the carjackers are reticent to enact auto theft because of the more uncertain and putatively greater risk of being surprised by victims, a fear that appears to overcome the enhanced long-term formal penalty of taking a vehicle by force."[8]

Prevention and response


Common carjacking ruses include: (1) bumping the victim's vehicle from behind, and taking the car when the victim gets out of the vehicle to assess damage and exchange information; (2) staging a fake car accident, sometimes with injuries, and stealing the vehicle of a passerby who stops to assist; (3) flashing lights or waving to get the victim's attention, indicating that there is a problem with the victim's car, and then taking the car once the victim pulls over; and (4) following a victim home, blocking the victim's car in a driveway or in front of a gate.[9]

Police departments, security agencies, and auto insurers have published lists of strategies for preventing and responding to carjackings.[9][10][11] Common recommendations include:

  • Staying alert and being aware of one's surroundings[9][10]
  • Parking in well-lighted areas[10][11]
  • Keeping vehicle doors locked and windows up[9][10]
  • Avoiding unfamiliar or high-crime areas[9][10]
  • Alerting police as soon as safely possible following a carjacking[9][10]
  • Avoid isolated and less-well-trafficked parking lots, ATMs, pay phones, etc.[9][10][11]
  • When stopped in traffic, keeping some distance between the vehicle in front, so one can pull away easily if necessary.[9][10]
  • If confronted, it is often safer to give up the vehicle and avoid resisting[9][10]

Truck hijacking


Commercial vehicles such as trucks and armored cars may be targets of hijacking attempts.[12] Such hijackings may be aimed at stealing cargo,[12] such as liquor, cigarettes, or consumer electronics.[13] In other cases, a hijacked truck may be used to commit another crime, such as robbery or a terrorist attack.[12]

Knowledge of the location of a truck carrying valuable cargo often requires inside information, and sometimes truck drivers collude with truck hijackers to facilitate the truck hijacking.[13]Criminal%20Inve]][14]La Cosa Nostra Kennedy Airport ruck.[15][16]

Incidents by country


Carjacking is a significant problem in South Africa, where it is called hijacking.[17] South Africa is thought to have the highest carjacking rate in the world.[18] There were 16,000 reported carjackings in 1998.[17] The figures dropped to 12,434 reported carjackings in 2005,[17] and continued to drop until the 2011-12, when the number of carjackings was 9,475, a record low.[19] Subsequently, however, carjackings increased as part of an overall increase in violent organized crime, which the Institute for Security Studies attributed to poor police leadership. There were 11,221 reported carjackings in 2014. More than half of all carjackings in South Africa occurred in Gauteng province, which includes Johannesburg and Pretoria.[19]

The carjacking issue in South Africa was depicted in the film Tsotsi, which won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 2005.[19]

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, several new, unconventional anti-carjacking systems designed to harm the attacker were developed and marketed in South Africa, where carjacking had become endemic. Among these was the now defunct Blaster, a small flame-thrower that could be mounted to the underside of a vehicle.[20]

In 1992, Congress, in the aftermath of a spate of violent carjackings (including some in which the victims were murdered), passed the Federal Anti-Car Theft Act of 1992 (FACTA), the first federal carjacking law, making it a federal crime (punishable by 15 years to life imprisonment) to use a firearm to steal "through force or violence or intimidation" a motor vehicle that had been shipped through interstate commerce.[1] The 1992 Act, codified at 18 U.S.C. § 2119, took effect on October 25, 1992.[21][22] However, only a small number of federal prosecutions were imposed for carjacking the year after the act was enacted, in part because many federal carjacking cases were turned over to state prosecutions because they do not meet U.S. Department of Justice criteria.[21] The Federal Death Penalty Act, part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, an omnibus crime bill, made sixty new federal crimes punishable by the federal death penalty; among these were the killing of a victim in the commission of carjacking.[1][22][23]

Throughout 1993, articles about carjackings appeared at the rate of more than one a week in newspapers throughout the country.[24] The November 29, 1992 killing of two Osceola County, Florida men by carjackers using a stolen 9 mm pistol resulted in the first federal prosecution of a fatal carjacking.[25]

According to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice's Bureau of Justice Statistics, from 1993 to 2002, some 38,000 carjackings occurred annually.[26] According to the survey, over this time period men were more often victims than women, blacks more than whites, and Hispanics more than non-Hispanics.[26] 56% of carjackers were identified by victims as black, 21% white, 16% Asian or Native American, and 7% mixed race or unknown.[26] Some 93% of carjackings occurred in urban areas.[26][27]

There were multiple carjackers in 56% of incidents, and the carjacker or carjackers were identified as male in 93% of incidents.

According to the NCVS, from 1992 and 1996, about 49,000 completed or attempted nonfatal carjackings took place each year in the United States.

Carjackings were common in Newark, New Jersey, in the 1990s, and a wave of carjackings took place again in 2010.[29] There were 288 carjackings in the city in 2010 (a 70% increase from the previous year), and Essex County (which includes Newark) had 69 in December 2010 alone.[29] The Associated Press reported that "unlike previous carjackings, in which thieves would strip vehicles for parts or sell them in other states, the recent wave perplexed law enforcement officials because almost all appeared to be done by thrill-seeking young men who would steal the cars for a few hours, drive them around and then abandon them."[29] After federal, state, and law enforcement agencies formed a task force, 42 suspects were charged, and carjackings dropped dramatically.[29] However, national media attention on carjackings in Essex County returned in December 2013, when a Hoboken lawyer was murdered at The Mall at Short Hills in Millburn, New Jersey, while defending his wife from four assailants,[30][31][32] who were all later convicted of the crime.[33]

The major U.S. city with the highest rates of carjacking is Detroit.[34] In 2008, Detroit had 1,231 carjackings, more than three a day.[34] By 2013, that number had fallen to 701, but this was still the highest known number of carjackings for any major city in the country.[34] The significant decrease in carjackings was credited to a coordinated effort by the Detroit Police Department, the FBI, and the local federal prosecutor's office.[34] Serial carjackers were targeted for federal prosecutions and longer sentences, and in 2009 the Detroit Police Department centralized all carjacking investigations and developed a suspect profiling system.[34] Through mid-November 2014, Detroit had 486 carjackings, down 31% from the year before, but this was still three times more than the carjackings experienced by New York City (which has ten times Detroit's population) in all of 2013.[34] Even James Craig, chief of police of the Detroit Police Department, was the victim of an attempted carjacking while he was in his police cruiser.[34]

A 2017 study used "Risk Terrain Modeling" analysis to identify spatial indicators of carjacking risk in Detroit.

Some states have a specific carjacking statute.

The law of some states, such as Louisiana, explicitly lists a killing in the course of defending oneself against forcible entry of an occupied motor vehicle as a justifiable homicide.[1][37][38]

Carjacking is an uncommon crime in Britain, making up about 1% of all vehicle thefts.[7]

Australia does not specifically record the number of carjackings; such crimes are variously recorded as assault, robbery, motor vehicle theft, and some combination.

See also


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