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Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions overseen by the United States federal government. The various U.S. territories differ from U.S. states and Native American tribes in that they are not sovereign entities. (Each state has individual sovereignty which it shares with the federal government; each federally recognized tribe possesses limited tribal sovereignty as a "dependent sovereign nation".)[28][3] They are classified by incorporation and whether they have an "organized" government through an organic act passed by Congress.[29] All U.S. territories are part of the United States (because they are under U.S. sovereignty),[30] but unincorporated territories are not considered to be integral parts of the United States,[31] and the U.S. constitution only applies partially in those territories.[32][33][29][34]

The U.S. currently has fourteen[32][35] territories in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean.[4][5] Five territories (American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) are permanently inhabited, unincorporated territories; the other nine are small islands, atolls and reefs with no native (or permanent) population. Of the nine, only one is classified as an incorporated territory (Palmyra Atoll). Two additional territories (Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank) are claimed by the United States but administered by Colombia.[33][37][38] Territories were created to administer newly acquired land, and most eventually attained statehood.[39][40] Others, such as the Philippines, Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and Palau, later became independent.[6]

Many organized incorporated territories of the United States existed from 1789 to 1959. The first were the Northwest and Southwest territories and the last were the Alaska and Hawaii territories. Thirty-one territories (or parts of territories) became states. In the process, some less-developed or -populous areas of a territory were orphaned from it after a statehood referendum. When a portion of the Missouri Territory became the state of Missouri, the remainder of the territory (the present-day states of Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota and North Dakota, most of Kansas, Wyoming, and Montana, and parts of Colorado and Minnesota) became an unorganized territory.[41]

People in U.S. territories cannot vote for the President of the United States, and they do not have full representation in the U.S. Congress.[33] Territorial telecommunications and other infrastructure is generally inferior to that of the continental United States and Hawaii, and American Samoa's Internet speed was found to be slower than several Eastern European countries.[42] Poverty rates are higher in the territories than in the states.[43][44]

Legal status of territories

The U.S. has had territories since its beginning.[45] According to federal law, the term "United States" (used in a geographical sense) means "the continental United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the United States Virgin Islands".[46] Since 1986, the Northern Mariana Islands have also been considered part of the U.S.[46] A 2007 executive order included American Samoa in the U.S. "geographical extent", as reflected in the Federal Register.[47] American Samoa and Jarvis Island are in the Southern Hemisphere — all other U.S. territories are in the Northern Hemisphere.

Organized territories are lands under federal sovereignty (but not part of any state) which were given a measure of self-rule by Congress through an organic act subject to the Congress's plenary powers under the territorial clause of the Constitution's Article Four, section 3.[48]

Permanently inhabited territories

The U.S. has five permanently inhabited territories: Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands in the Caribbean Sea; Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, in the western North Pacific Ocean's Mariana Islands, and American Samoa in the South Pacific Ocean.[7] About 3.6 million people in these territories are U.S. citizens,[22][23][24][25][26] and citizenship at birth is granted in four of the five territories (granted by Congress).[49][50][51][8] Citizenship at birth is not granted in American Samoa — American Samoa has about 32,000 non-citizen U.S. nationals.[51][52] Under U.S. law, "only persons born in American Samoa and Swains Island are non-citizen U.S. nationals" in its territories.[53] Because they are U.S. nationals, American Samoans are under U.S. protection, and can travel to the rest of the U.S. without a visa.[53] However, to become U.S. citizens, American Samoans must become naturalized citizens, like foreigners.[54][9] Unlike the other four inhabited territories, Congress has passed no legislation granting birthright citizenship to American Samoans.[49][10]

Each territory is self-governing[34] with three branches of government, including a locally elected governor and a territorial legislature.[33] Each territory elects a non-voting member (a non-voting resident commissioner in the case of Puerto Rico) to the U.S. House of Representatives.[33][58][59] They "possess the same powers as other members of the House, except that they may not vote [on the floor] when the House is meeting as the House of Representatives";[60] they debate, are assigned offices and staff funding, and nominate constituents from their territories to the Army, Navy and Marine Corps, Air Force and Merchant Marine academies.[60] They can vote in their appointed House committees on all legislation presented to the House, they are included in their party count for each committee, and they are equal to senators on conference committees. Depending on the Congress, they may also vote on the floor in the House Committee of the Whole.[33]

As of the 116th Congress (January 3, 2019 – January 3, 2021), the members of Congress from the territories were Amata Coleman Radewagen (R – American Samoa), Michael San Nicholas (D – Guam), Gregorio Sablan (D – Northern Mariana Islands), Jenniffer González-Colón (R – Puerto Rico) and Stacey Plaskett (D – U.S. Virgin Islands).[61] The District of Columbia also has a non-voting delegate. Like the District of Columbia, U.S. territories do not have voting representation in Congress and have no representation in the Senate.[62][63]

Every four years, U.S. political parties nominate presidential candidates at conventions which include delegates from the territories.[64] U.S. citizens living in the territories cannot vote in the general presidential election,[33][62] and non-citizen nationals in American Samoa cannot vote for President.[49]

The territorial capitals are Pago Pago (American Samoa), Hagåtña (Guam), Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands), San Juan (Puerto Rico) and Charlotte Amalie (U.S. Virgin Islands).[22][23][24][25][26][65][66] Their governors are Lolo Matalasi Moliga (American Samoa), Lou Leon Guerrero (Guam), Ralph Torres (Northern Mariana Islands), Wanda Vázquez Garced (Puerto Rico) and Albert Bryan (U.S. Virgin Islands).

Among the inhabited territories, Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is available only in the Northern Mariana Islands;[11] however in 2019 a U.S. judge ruled that the federal government's denial of SSI benefits to people in Puerto Rico is unconstitutional.[67]

American Samoa is the only U.S. territory with its own immigration system (a system separate from the United States immigration system).[68] American Samoa also has a communal land system in which 90% of the land is communally owned; ownership is based on Samoan ancestry.[68]

  • American Samoa – Territory since 1900; after the end of the Second Samoan Civil War, the Samoan Islands were divided into two regions. The U.S. took control of the eastern half of the islands.[73][74] In 1900, the Treaty of Cession of Tutuila took effect.[75] The Manuʻa islands became part of American Samoa in 1904, and Swains Island became part of American Samoa in 1925.[75] Congress ratified American Samoa's treaties in 1929.[75] For 51 years, the U.S. Navy controlled the territory.[55] American Samoa is locally self-governing under a constitution last revised in 1967.[74][15] The first elected governor of American Samoa was in 1977, and the first non-voting member of Congress was in 1981.[55] People born in American Samoa are U.S. nationals, but not U.S. citizens.[49][74] American Samoa is technically unorganized,[74] and its main island is Tutuila.[74]
  • Guam – Territory since 1899, acquired at the end of the Spanish–American War.[77] Guam is the home of Naval Base Guam and Andersen Air Force Base. It was organized under the Guam Organic Act of 1950, which granted U.S. citizenship to Guamanians and gave Guam a local government.[77] In 1968, the act was amended to permit the election of a governor.[77]
  • Northern Mariana Islands – A commonwealth since 1986,[70][69] the Northern Mariana Islands were part of the Spanish Empire until 1899 and part of the German Empire from 1899 to 1919.[78] They were administered by Japan as a League of Nations mandate until the islands were conquered by the United States during World War II.[78] They became part of the United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI) in 1947, administered by the United States as U.N. trustee.[78][69] The other constituents of the TTPI were Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands.[79] A covenant to establish the Northern Mariana Islands as a commonwealth in political union with the United States was negotiated by representatives of both political bodies; it was approved by Northern Mariana Islands voters in 1975, and came into force on March 24, 1976.[78][24] In accordance with the covenant, the Northern Mariana Islands constitution partially took effect on January 9, 1978, and became fully effective on November 4, 1986.[24] In 1986, the Northern Mariana Islands formally left U.N. trusteeship.[70] The abbreviations "CNMI" and "NMI" are both used in the commonwealth. Most residents in the Northern Mariana Islands live on Saipan, the main island.[24]
  • Puerto Rico – Unincorporated territory since 1899;[71] Puerto Rico was acquired at the end of the Spanish–American War,[80] and has been a U.S. commonwealth since 1952.[81] Since 1917, Puerto Ricans have been granted U.S. citizenship.[82] Puerto Rico was organized under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950 (Public Law 600). In November 2008, a U.S. District Court judge ruled that a series of Congressional actions have had the cumulative effect of changing Puerto Rico's status from unincorporated to incorporated.[83] The issue is proceeding through the courts, however,[84] and the U.S. government still refers to Puerto Rico as unincorporated. A Puerto Rican attorney has called the island "semi-sovereign".[85] Puerto Rico has a statehood movement, whose goal is to make the territory the 51st state.[63][86] See also Political status of Puerto Rico.
  • U.S. Virgin Islands – Purchased by the U.S. from Denmark in 1917 and organized under the Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands in 1954, U.S. citizenship was granted in 1927.[87] The main islands are Saint Thomas, Saint John and Saint Croix.

Except for Guam, the inhabited territories lost population in 2018. Although the territories have higher poverty rates than the mainland U.S., they have high Human Development Indexes. Four of the five territories have another official language, in addition to English.[88][89]

The territories do not have administrative counties.[19] The U.S. Census Bureau counts Puerto Rico's 78 municipalities, the U.S. Virgin Islands' three main islands, all of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands' four municipalities, and American Samoa's three districts and two atolls as county equivalents.[101][102] The Census Bureau also counts each of the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands as county equivalents.[101][102]

For statistical purposes, the U.S. Census Bureau has a defined area called the "Island Areas" which consists of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands (every major territory except Puerto Rico).[21][103][104] The U.S. Census Bureau often treats Puerto Rico as its own entity or groups it with the 50 states and D.C. (for example, Puerto Rico has a QuickFacts page just like the 50 states and D.C.)[105] Puerto Rico data is collected annually in American Community Survey estimates (just like the 50 states), but data for the other U.S. territories is collected only once every 10 years.[106]

See also: Politics of American Samoa, Politics of Guam, Politics of the Northern Mariana Islands, Politics of Puerto Rico, and Politics of the U.S. Virgin Islands

The five major inhabited territories contain the following governments and legislatures:

The legislatures of American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands and Puerto Rico are bicameral, while the legislatures of Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands are unicameral.

Each of the five major territories has its own local court system:

Of the 5 five major territories, only Puerto Rico has an Article III federal district court (i.e., equivalent to the courts in the 50 states); it became an Article III court in 1966.[107] This means that, unlike other U.S. territories, federal judges in Puerto Rico have life tenure.[107] Puerto Rico is the only unincorporated region of the U.S. to have an Article III court.[107] Federal courts in Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands and the U.S. Virgin Islands are Article IV territorial courts.[107][108] The following is a list of federal territorial courts, plus Puerto Rico's court:

American Samoa does not have a federal territorial court, and so federal matters in American Samoa are sent to either the District court of Hawaii or the District court of the District of Columbia.[109] American Samoa is the only permanently inhabited region of the United States with no federal court.[109]

See also: Demographics of American Samoa, Demographics of Guam, Demographics of the Northern Mariana Islands, Demographics of Puerto Rico, and Demographics of the U.S. Virgin Islands

While the U.S. mainland is majority non-Hispanic white,[110] this is not the case for the U.S. territories. In 2010, American Samoa's population was 92.6% Pacific Islander (including 88.9% Samoan); Guam's population was 49.3% Pacific Islander (including 37.3% Chamorro) and 32.2% Asian (including 26.3% Filipino); the population of the Northern Mariana Islands was 34.9% Pacific Islander and 49.9% Asian; and the population of the U.S. Virgin Islands was 76.0% African-American.[111] In 2017, Puerto Rico's population was 99.0% Hispanic or Latino (including 95.8% Puerto Rican), and 68.9% white.[112]

Throughout the 2010s, the U.S. territories (overall) lost population. The combined population of the five inhabited territories was 4,100,594 in 2010,[21] and 3,672,195 in 2018.[22][23][24][25][26]

The U.S. territories have high religiosity rates — American Samoa has the highest religiosity rate in the United States (99.3% religious and 98.3% Christian).[22]

See also: Economy of American Samoa, Economy of Guam, Economy of the Northern Mariana Islands, Economy of Puerto Rico, and Economy of the U.S. Virgin Islands

The economies of the U.S. territories vary from Puerto Rico, which has a GDP of $101.131 billion in 2018, to American Samoa, which has a GDP of $634 million in 2017.[94] In 2018, Puerto Rico exported about $18 billion in goods, with the Netherlands as the largest destination.[113]

In 2017, Guam's GDP grew by 0.2%, the GDP of the Northern Mariana Islands grew by 25.1%, Puerto Rico's GDP shrank by 2.4%, and the U.S. Virgin Islands' GDP shrank by 1.7%.[114][115][25][116] In 2017, American Samoa's GDP shrank by 5.8%, but then grew by 2.2% in 2018.[117]

American Samoa has the lowest per capita income in the United States — it has a per capita income comparable to that of Botswana.[118] In 2010, American Samoa's per capita income was $6,311.[119] As of 2010, the Manu'a District in American Samoa had a per capita income of $5,441, the lowest of any county or county-equivalent in the United States.[119] In 2017, Puerto Rico had a median household income of $19,775 (the lowest of any state or territory in the U.S.)[120] Also in 2017, Adjuntas, Puerto Rico had a median household income of $11,680 (the lowest median household income of any county or county-equivalent in the U.S.)[121] Guam has much higher incomes (Guam had a median household income of $48,274 in 2010.)[122]

Minor outlying islands

The United States Minor Outlying Islands are small islands, atolls and reefs. Palmyra Atoll, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll and Wake Island are in the Pacific Ocean, and Navassa Island is in the Caribbean Sea. The additional disputed territories of Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank are also located in the Caribbean Sea. Palmyra Atoll (formally known as the United States Territory of Palmyra Island)[123] is the only incorporated territory, a status it has maintained since Hawaii became a state in 1959.[35]

The status of several territories is disputed. Navassa Island is disputed by Haiti,[124] Wake Island is disputed by the Marshall Islands,[125] Swains Island (part of American Samoa) is disputed by Tokelau,[126][22] and Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank (both administered by Colombia) are disputed by Colombia, Jamaica, Honduras, and Nicaragua.[33][127] They are uninhabited except for Midway Atoll, whose approximately 40 inhabitants are employees of the Fish and Wildlife Service and their services provider;[128] Palmyra Atoll, whose population varies from four to 20 Nature Conservancy and Fish and Wildlife staff and researchers;[129] and Wake Island, which has a population of about 100 military personnel and civilian employees.[125]

The following two territories are claimed by multiple countries (including the United States),[33] and are not included in ISO 3166-2:UM. However, they are sometimes grouped with the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands. According to the GAO, "the United States conducts maritime law enforcement operations in and around Serranilla Bank and Bajo Nuevo [Bank] consistent with U.S. sovereignty claims."[33]

Incorporated and unincorporated territories

Congress decides whether a territory is incorporated or unincorporated. The U.S. constitution applies to each incorporated territory (including its local government and inhabitants) as it applies to the local governments and residents of a state. Incorporated territories are considered to be integral parts of the U.S., rather than possessions.[31][139]

The U.S. Supreme Court, in its 1901–1905 Insular Cases, ruled that the constitution extended to U.S. territories. The court also established the doctrine of territorial incorporation, in which the constitution applies fully to incorporated territories (such as the territories of Alaska and Hawaii) and partially in the unincorporated territories of Puerto Rico, Guam and, at the time, the Philippines (which is no longer a U.S. territory).[140][141]

In the 1901 Supreme Court case Downes v. Bidwell, the court said that the U.S. Constitution did not fully apply in unincorporated territories because they were inhabited by "alien races".[142][143] Joshua Keating of calls the Insular Cases "bizarre and racist".[54]

The U.S. had no unincorporated territories (also known as overseas possessions or insular areas) until 1856. Congress enacted the Guano Islands Act that year, authorizing the president to take possession of unclaimed islands to mine guano. The U.S. has taken control of (and claimed rights on) many islands and atolls, especially in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, under this law; most have been abandoned. It also has acquired territories since 1856 under other circumstances, such as under the Treaty of Paris (1898) which ended the Spanish–American War. The Supreme Court considered the constitutional position of these unincorporated territories in Balzac v. People of Porto Rico, and said the following about a U.S. court in Puerto Rico:

In Glidden Company v. Zdanok, the court cited Balzac and said about courts in unincorporated territories: "Upon like considerations, Article III has been viewed as inapplicable to courts created in unincorporated territories outside the mainland ... and to the consular courts established by concessions from foreign countries ..."[145] [] The judiciary determined that incorporation involves express declaration or an implication strong enough to exclude any other view, raising questions about Puerto Rico's status.[146]

In 1966, Congress made the United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico an Article III district court. This (the only district court in a U.S. territory) sets Puerto Rico apart judicially from the other unincorporated territories, and U.S. district judge Gustavo Gelpi express the opinion that Puerto Rico is no longer unincorporated:

In Balzac, the court defined "implied":[144] []

In 2018, a lower court ruling (Luis Segovia v. United States, in the United States Court of Appeals for the 7th Circuit) ruled that former Illinois residents living in Puerto Rico, Guam, or the U.S. Virgin Islands cannot file absentee ballots because those regions are part of the United States.[148]

In analyzing the Insular Cases, Christina Duffy Ponsa of the New York Times said the following: "To be an unincorporated territory is to be caught in limbo: although unquestionably subject to American sovereignty, they are not considered part of the United States for certain purposes but not others. Whether they are part of the United States for purposes of the Citizenship Clause remains unresolved."[30][20]

In Rassmussen v. U.S., the Supreme Court quoted from Article III of the 1867 treaty for the purchase of Alaska and then said: "'The inhabitants of the ceded territory ... shall be admitted to the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages, and immunities of citizens of the United States ...' This declaration, although somewhat changed in phraseology, is the equivalent ... of the formula, employed from the beginning to express the purpose to incorporate acquired territory into the United States, especially in the absence of other provisions showing an intention to the contrary."[149] [] The act of incorporation affects the people of the territory more than the territory per se by extending the Privileges and Immunities Clause of the Constitution to them, such as its extension to Puerto Rico in 1947; however, Puerto Rico remains unincorporated.[146]

The 2016 Supreme Court case Puerto Rico v. Sanchez Valle ruled that territories do not have their own sovereignty.[28] That year, the Supreme Court declined to rule on a lower-court ruling in Tuaua v. United States that American Samoans are not U.S. citizens at birth.[56][57]

Rassmussen arose from a criminal conviction by a six-person jury in Alaska under federal law. The court held that Alaska had been incorporated into the U.S. in the treaty of cession with Russia,[150] and the congressional implication was strong enough to exclude any other view:[149] []

Concurring justice Henry Brown agreed:[149] []

In Dorr v. U.S., the court quoted Chief Justice John Marshall from an earlier case:[151] []

In Downes v. Bidwell, the court said: "The same construction was adhered to in the treaty with Spain for the purchase of Florida ... the 6th article of which provided that the inhabitants should 'be incorporated into the Union of the United States, as soon as may be consistent with the principles of the Federal Constitution.'"[152] []

Justice Brown first mentioned incorporation in Downes:[152] []

In Downes, the court said:

Former territories and administered areas

  • Puerto Rico: April 11, 1899 – May 1, 1900
  • Philippines: August 14, 1898[154] – July 4, 1901
  • Guam: April 11, 1899 – July 1, 1950

Flora and fauna

Further information: Fauna of the United States: territories

The territories of the United States have many plant and animal species found nowhere else in the United States.[158] All U.S. territories have tropical climates and ecosystems.[158]

The USDA says the following about the U.S. territories (plus Hawaii):

Forests in the U.S. territories are vulnerable to invasive species and new housing developments.[158] El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico is the only tropical rain forest in the United States National Forest system.[159]

American Samoa has 80.84% forest cover and the Northern Mariana Islands has 80.37% forest cover — these are among the highest forest cover percentages in the United States (only Maine and New Hampshire are higher).[160]

See also: Birds of American Samoa, Birds of Guam, Birds of the Northern Mariana Islands, Birds of Puerto Rico, Birds of the U.S. Virgin Islands, Birds of the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands, and List of birds of the United States

U.S. territories have many bird species that are endemic (not found in any other location).[158]

The native bird population on Guam has been harmed by the introduction of the invasive brown tree snake — the brown tree snake has caused 9 out of 12 endemic Guam bird species (such as the Guam flycatcher) to become extinct.[158] The territorial bird of Guam (the Guam rail) is now extinct in the wild.

Puerto Rico has several endemic bird species, such as the critically endangered Puerto Rican parrot, the Puerto Rican flycatcher, and the Puerto Rican spindalis.[161] The Northern Mariana Islands has the Mariana swiftlet, Mariana crow, Tinian monarch and golden white-eye (all endemic).[162] American Samoa is the only area of the United States where the many-colored fruit dove can be found — it can be found in the National Park of American Samoa.[163] Other birds found in American Samoa include the blue-crowned lorikeet and the Samoan starling.[164]

The Wake Island rail (now extinct) was endemic to Wake Island,[165] and the Laysan duck is endemic to Midway Atoll and the Northwest Hawaiian Islands.[166] Palmyra Atoll has the second-largest red-footed booby colony in the world,[167] and Midway Atoll has the largest breeding colony of Laysan albatross in the world.[168][169]

The American Birding Association currently excludes the U.S. territories from their "ABA Area" checklist.[170]

See also: Mammals of American Samoa, Mammals of Guam, Mammals of the Northern Mariana Islands, Mammals of Puerto Rico, Mammals of the U.S. Virgin Islands, Mammals of the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands, Reptiles of American Samoa, Reptiles of Puerto Rico, Fauna of Puerto Rico, and Fauna of the U.S. Virgin Islands

American Samoa has several reptile species, such as the Pacific boa (on the island of Ta‘ū) and Pacific slender-toed gecko.[171] American Samoa has only a few mammal species, such as the Pacific (Polynesian) sheath-tailed bat, as well as oceanic mammals such as the Humpback whale.[172][173] Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands also have a small number of mammals, such as the Mariana fruit bat;[174] oceanic mammals include Fraser's dolphin and the Sperm whale. The fauna of Puerto Rico includes the common coquí (frog),[175] while the fauna of the U.S. Virgin Islands includes species found in Virgin Islands National Park (including 302 species of fish).[176]

American Samoa has a location called Turtle and Shark which is important in Samoan culture and has a mythology about the turtles/sharks that live in the area.[177]

Public image

In The Not-Quite States of America, his book about the U.S. territories, Doug Mack said:

Organizations such as Facebook view U.S. territories as not being part of the United States — instead, they are viewed as equivalent to foreign countries.[180] In response to Facebook's view, former Guam representative Madeleine Bordallo said, "It is an injustice that Americans living in the U.S. territories are not treated as other Americans living in the states. […] Treating residents of Guam and other U.S. territories as living outside the United States and excluding them from programs perpetuates misconceptions and injustices that have long had a negative impact on our communities".[180]

Representative Stephanie Murphy of Florida said about a 2018 bill to make Puerto Rico the 51st state, "The hard truth is that Puerto Rico’s lack of political power allows Washington to treat Puerto Rico like an afterthought, as the federal government’s inadequate preparation for and response to Hurricane Maria made crystal clear."[181] According to Governor of Puerto Rico Ricardo Rosselló, "Because we don’t have political power, because we don’t have representatives, [no] senators, no vote for president, we are treated as an afterthought."[182] Rosselló called Puerto Rico the "oldest, most populous colony in the world".[183]

Rosselló and others have referred to the U.S. territories as American "colonies".[183][184][185][186][30] David Vine of the Washington Post said the following: "The people of [the U.S. territories] are all too accustomed to being forgotten except in times of crisis. But being forgotten is not the worst of their problems. They are trapped in a state of third-class citizenship, unable to access full democratic rights because politicians have long favored the military’s freedom of operation over protecting the freedoms of certain U.S. citizens."[186] In his article How the U.S. Has Hidden Its Empire, Daniel Immerwahr of The Guardian writes, "The confusion and should-shrugging indifference that mainlanders displayed [toward territories] at the time of Pearl Harbor hasn't changed much at all. […] [Maps of the contiguous U.S.] give [mainlanders] a truncated view of their own history, one that excludes part of their country."[184] The 2020 U.S. Census excludes non-citizen U.S. nationals in American Samoa — in response to this, Mark Stern of said, "The Census Bureau’s total exclusion of American Samoans provides a pertinent reminder that, until the courts step in, the federal government will continue to treat these Americans with startling indifference."[187]


Note: Wanda Vázquez Garced is the governor of Puerto Rico, but there is no image available for her.

See also

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