South Portland is a city in Cumberland County, Maine, United States, and is the fourth-largest city in the state, incorporated in 1898. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 25,002. Known for its working waterfront, South Portland is situated on Portland Harbor and overlooks the skyline of Portland and the islands of Casco Bay. Due to South Portland's close proximity to air, marine, rail, and highway transportation options, the city has become a center for retail and industry in the region.
Despite the name, South Portland was never part of the city of Portland, but rather part of Cape Elizabeth. It broke off in 1895. However, both Cape Elizabeth and Portland were once part of Falmouth. Cape Elizabeth, then including what later became South Portland, broke away from Falmouth in 1765. South Portland is a principal city of the Portland – South Portland – Biddeford metropolitan area.
South Portland was first settled in 1630, and it grew to become a small residential community with many farms. The village was raided by natives in Father Rale's War (1724). In 1858, the City of Portland purchased land near the Fore River for the Forest City Cemetery. On March 15, 1895, it was incorporated as a town after it broke away from Cape Elizabeth, based on a disagreement on a future source of public drinking water. Three years later South Portland became a city, destined to receive its drinking water, like Portland, from Sebago Lake, while Cape Elizabeth used wells or other local sources.
On South Portland's waterfront is Fort Preble, which is a military fort established in 1808 to protect Portland Harbor. It was in operation during several American conflicts, including the United States Civil War, World War I, and World War II. Near Fort Preble is Spring Point Ledge Light, which was constructed by the federal government in 1897 to mark a dangerous rock ledge.
In 1940, the Todd-Bath Iron Shipbuilding Corp (later called the “East Yard”) was established to build cargo ships for Britain. When the United States became involved with World War II, the shipyard expanded to include the South Portland Shipbuilding Corp. (aka the “West Yard”), that later combined with the Todd-Bath yard to become the New England Shipbuilding Corporation. These shipyards built 236 of the 440 foot (134 m) long Liberty ships, more than 10 percent of all the Liberty ships constructed during the war years. At its peak, the shipyard employed some 30,000 people, including thousands of women, who took over the jobs vacated by men going into the service. The shipyard gradually ceased operations after the war ended in 1945. Remnants of the shipyards are visible, and there is a memorial to the shipyard and the workers at Bug Light Park. The park is also home to Portland Breakwater Lighthouse, commonly referred to as "Bug Light."
On July 11, 1944, at 4:45 PM, U.S. Army Lt. Phillip "Phee" Russell was attempting to land his Douglas A-26 Invader at the Portland-Westbrook Municipal Airport. For reasons that were never fully determined, Russell lost control of the plane and crashed into a trailer park in South Portland's Brick Hill neighborhood. 19 people were killed and 20 people were injured — mostly the families of South Portland shipyard workers — making it the worst aviation accident in Maine history. A Long Creek Air Tragedy Memorial was eventually erected to commemorate the crash and honor the victims, but not until 66 years later.
Over the last few decades, South Portland has become the retail capital of Maine. The Mill Creek shopping center, built in the 1950s, was the first such "strip mall" built in Maine: a line of stores under one long roof and a covered walkway. Mill Creek has changed and grown significantly since, but the original layout still forms the core of the stores. The area in Mill Creek known as the Waterfront Market sits at the base of the Casco Bay Bridge and attracts shoppers from Scarborough, Cape Elizabeth and Portland.
The need for a large mall in Maine emerged in the 1960s, as Portland's downtown district could not accommodate the growing retail market. A former pig farm in South Portland was chosen as the site for the project because it was close to I-95 and convenient from Portland. Beginning construction of the Maine Mall in the late 1960s marked the start of a major transition in the western part of South Portland: from a rural, agrarian landscape to the large retail center that exists today.
The oldest neighborhood in South Portland, and its former "retail corridor", is Ferry Village. Prior to the Casco Bay Bridge (or the one it replaced, the Million Dollar Bridge), ferries transported people and goods back and forth across the harbor to Portland. The landscape and the makeup of residents in Ferry Village were forever changed upon the close of the WWII shipyards. The Village has slowly bounced back and is now one of the more popular places in the city to live.
Ferry Village also has one of the most active and involved neighborhood associations in Southern Maine. The Ferry Village Neighborhood Conservation Association (FVNCA) was formed in August 1985 to address the development boom in the 1980s which was quickly altering the character of the waterfront and many Greater Portland neighborhoods. FVNCA was instrumental in the formation of the South Portland Land Trust  as well as the City-managed Land Bank which provides seed money for the acquisition of available open space.
Government and politics
The city council is made up of seven members elected by the citizens: one member from each of the five districts in the city, and two at-large members. Voters are allowed to vote for council candidates in all five districts, not just the district where they are registered to vote.
Every December, the members of the council elect one of themselves as mayor, which is primarily a ceremonial title. The mayor serves as chairman of the council.
The council appoints a city manager to oversee the daily operations of the government and implement the policies established by the council. The manager is an employee of the city and has a contract that specifies his or her duties and responsibilities. Ideally, the manager is considered apolitical.
In December 2007, then-mayor James Soule made headlines in Maine and across the country when he proposed in his inaugural address that South Portland, along with parts of southern Maine, secede from the state of Maine and form a new state. Soule referred to the state government of Maine as an "oppressive enemy" and said that South Portland, along with other southern Maine cities and towns, contributes much more to the state in tax revenue than it receives in education funding. "The state of Maine needs South Portland more than South Portland needs the state of Maine," Soule claimed.
The proposal did not gain any traction, and Soule did not continue to pursue it. Soule nominated himself for reelection as mayor in November 2008, but was defeated by Thomas Blake in a 6-1 vote. Soule voted for himself.
South Portland is bordered by Portland to the north, Cape Elizabeth and Scarborough to the south, and Westbrook to the west. The city is located at 43°37′54″N 70°16′22″W  . According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.02 square miles (36.31 km2), of which 11.99 square miles (31.05 km2) is land and 2.03 square miles (5.26 km2) is water.
The city-owned South Portland Bus Service provides public transportation throughout the city.
Villages are in bold; neighborhoods are in italics.
- Ferry Village Cushing's Point
- Knightville Mill Creek
- Pleasantdale Highland Avenue / Stanwood Park
- Skunk Hill Brick Hill Cash Corner Country Gardens The Maine Mall Meadowbrook Redbank Sunset Park Thornton Heights
- Town House Corner South Portland Heights
- Willard Loveitt's Field Meetinghouse Hill Willard Beach
South Portland's public school system has five neighborhood elementary schools: Brown School, Dyer School, Kaler School, Skillin School and Dora L. Small Elementary School. The city has two middle schools, Mahoney Middle School and Memorial Middle School. The city has one high school, South Portland High School, which has an enrollment of about 900 students.
South Portland has two private schools: Holy Cross School, which is a Roman Catholic K-8 school, and Greater Portland Christian School, which is a non-denominational Christian K-12 school.
Places of worship
- First Baptist Church of South Portland 
- Peace Buddhist Center 
- Christ Fellowship Church 
- Eastpoint Christian Church 
- Greater Portland Church of Christ 
Church of the Nazarene
- South Portland Church of the Nazarene 
- Congregation Bet Ha'am 
- Holy Cross Church 
United Church of Christ
- First Congregational Church of South Portland 
There are several local media groups that report on the news of the city. The South Portland Sentry offers a free newspaper that covers the city's events and news. It has a circulation of 17,000 and is distributed to residents free of charge. Regional newspapers such as The Current and The Forecaster cover South Portland issues and events, while also serving the communities of Cape Elizabeth and Scarborough. The city also has a local Public-access television cable TV television station, SPC-TV which is sponsored by the city and is broadcast on Time Warner Cable's channel 2.
- SPC-TV (Channel 2) 
- The South Portland Sentry 
- The Current 
- The Forecaster (Southern Edition) 
Media coverage for South Portland is also provided by Portland's television stations, radio stations, and periodicals.
While the city is considered suburban, it also has a diverse economy, as evidenced by its working waterfront and large retail center.
The Maine Mall is the largest and busiest mall in the state and attracts thousands of shoppers each year.
Points of interest
South Portland offers an array of parks and open space. One of the main features of South Portland is the historic Greenbelt walkway, which is a three-mile (5 km) paved trail that crosses through several neighborhoods and provides views of the harbor. Mill Creek Park is located in South Portland's downtown area and is complete with a beautifully landscaped pond area and rose garden. The park is host to several local events including summer concerts, Art in the Park, holiday tree lighting and ice skating in the winter. Other notable parks are Wainwright Farm, which is a new recreational facility and Hinckley Park which is a 40-acre (160,000 m2) wooded area that has two ponds. The city's waterfront has several recreational marinas and is home to the last free beach in the area, Willard Beach.
- Fort Preble
- Lyric Music Theater 
- Portland Breakwater Light (known locally as Bug Light)
- Portland Harbor Museum 
- Portland Players Theater 
- Shoreway Arboretum
- South Portland Farmers' Market 
- South Portland Historical Society
- South Portland Public Library
- Southern Maine Community College
- Spring Point Ledge Light
- The Maine Mall
As of the census of 2010, there were 25,002 people, 10,877 households, and 6,197 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,085.2 inhabitants per square mile (805.1/km2). There were 11,484 housing units at an average density of 957.8 per square mile (369.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 91.1% White, 2.1% African American, 0.3% Native American, 3.8% Asian, 0.8% from other races, and 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population.
There were 10,877 households of which 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.0% were non-families. 31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.84.
The median age in the city was 39.4 years. 20.4% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.7% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 28.4% were from 25 to 44; 27.8% were from 45 to 64; and 13.6% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.7% male and 52.3% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 23,324 people, 10,047 households, and 6,038 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,944.7 people per square mile (751.1/km²). There were 10,349 housing units at an average density of 862.9 per square mile (333.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 95.80% White, 0.63% African American, 0.33% Native American, 1.59% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.31% from other races, and 1.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.13% of the population.
There were 10,047 households out of which 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.9% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.85.
In the city, the population was spread out with 22.3% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, and 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $42,770, and the median income for a family was $52,833. Males had a median income of $32,256 versus $28,630 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,781. About 4.9% of families and 6.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.5% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.
- Robert G. Albion, author, historian, college professor
- Jim Beattie, pitcher with the New York Yankees and Seattle Mariners
- Larry Bliss, state senator
- Lynn Bromley, state senator and Small Business Administration official
- Brett Brown, head coach of the Philadelphia 76ers
- Peter Buck, co-founder of Subway restaurant chain
- Clarke Canfield, journalist, author
- Frank M. Coffin, judge, U.S. congressman
- Chris Coyne, co-founder of OkCupid
- Bob Crowley, winner of Survivor: Gabon
- Santo DiPietro, businessperson, city councilor and state legislator
- Jane Eberle, state legislator
- Charlie Furbush, baseball pitcher with the Detroit Tigers and Seattle Mariners
- Jon Gillies, goaltender with the Calgary Flames
- John W. Gulick, U.S. Army major general
- Simon M. Hamlin, U.S. congressman
- Frederick Hinckley, land developer, mayor and state legislator
- Ed McAleney, defensive tackle for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Pittsburgh Maulers, and Calgary Stampeders (CFL); born in South Portland
- Terry Morrison, state legislator
- Judd Nelson, actor
- James C. Oliver, U.S. congressman
- Edward Reynolds, first Mayor of South Portland (1899-1900), State Senator
- Bill Swift, pitcher with the Seattle Mariners, San Francisco Giants, and Colorado Rockies