In the Westminster legislative system, developed in the United Kingdom, there are often several readings of a bill as it passes through the stages becoming, or failing to become, legislation. Some of these readings may be formalities rather than actual debate.
A first reading is when a bill is introduced to a legislature. Typically, in the United States, the title of the bill is read and immediately assigned to a committee. The bill is then considered by committee between the first and second readings. In the United States Senate and most British-influenced legislatures, the committee consideration occurs between second and third readings.
In the Israeli Knesset, the committee consideration occurs between first and second readings and (for private member bills) between preliminary and first readings, and the first reading includes a debate on the general outlines of the bill followed by a vote on whether or not to send it to committee.
- introduction by a private member moving a motion "that leave be given to introduce" the bill—the bill goes to second stage if the motion is carried
- presentation on behalf of either the government (unlimited numbers) or a parliamentary group (one at a time per group in the Dáil, three in the Seanad)—the bill automatically goes to second stage
In New Zealand, once a bill passes first reading it is normally referred to a Select Committee. However, a Government can have a bill skip the select committee stage by a simple majority vote in Parliament.
Even if the first reading does not require a formal vote, a bill can nonetheless be defeated on first reading if a member introduces it and no one seconds it.
A second reading is the stage of the legislative process where a draft of a bill is read a second time. In most Westminster systems, a vote is taken on the general outlines of the bill before being sent to committee.
In the Oireachtas of Ireland, it is referred to as "Second Stage", though the subheading "second reading" is used Dáil standing orders, and the motion at second stage is still "that the Bill is to be read a second time". A bill introduced in one house enters the other house at Second Stage, except that the Seanad second stage is waived for Dáil consolidation bills. Once the bill passes second stage it is referred to a Select Committee of that house or taken in Committee Stage by the whole house.
In the Knesset, the bill's detailed provisions are considered in the second reading, and then voted on clause by clause. However, continuous stretches of clauses without any proposed amendments, or even different wordings written in the bill itself, are voted as a single bloc. The starting point for the bill considered in second reading is its post-committee consideration text, which can vary widely from the bill voted on in first reading, even to the point of mergers and splits.
In the United States Senate, a bill is either referred to committee or placed on the Calendar of Business after second reading. No vote is held on whether to read the bill a second time. In U.S. legislatures where consideration in committee precedes second reading, the procedure varies as to how a bill reaches second reading. In Illinois, for example, legislation is automatically read a second time, after which amendments are in order.
In New Zealand, once a bill passes a Second Reading it is then considered clause by clause by the whole Parliament. If a majority of Parliament agree, the bill can be considered part by part, saving considerable time. Because most bills must have majority support to pass a second reading, it is now very rare for a bill to be considered clause by clause.
A third reading is the stage of a legislative process in which a bill is read with all amendments and given final approval by a legislative body. In legislatures whose procedures are based on those of the Westminster system, the third reading occurs after the bill has been amended by committee and considered for amendment at report stage.
In bicameral legislatures, a bill must separately pass the third reading in both chambers. Once that happens, it is sent on for promulgation, such as Royal Assent in the Westminster system or signing by the president or governor in the U.S. model. In a unicameral legislature, after passing third reading in the sole chamber, the bill goes on directly for promulgation.
In the Oireachtas of Ireland, the equivalent of the third reading is referred to as the "Fifth Stage" or "Final Stage". The motion is "That the Bill do now pass", except that the Seanad motion for a money bill is "That the Bill be returned to the Dáil". When a bill passes one house, it is sent to the other house and enters at Second Stage. After both houses have passed the bill, it is sent to the President of Ireland to be signed into law.