The second May ministry was formed on 11 June 2017 after Queen Elizabeth II invited Theresa May to form a government following the June 2017 snap general election. The election resulted in a hung parliament with the Conservative Party losing its majority in the House of Commons. On 9 June 2017, May announced her intention to form a Conservative minority government, reliant on the confidence and supply of the Democratic Unionist Party; a finalised agreement between the two parties was signed and published on 26 June 2017.  
The 2017 snap election resulted in a hung parliament, with the Conservative Party holding the most seats in the House of Commons, but without an overall majority. The DUP had suggested it would be able to provide a coalition or confidence and supply arrangement depending on negotiations.  Theresa May, incumbent Conservative prime minister, announced her intention on 9 June 2017 to form a new minority government with support from the DUP.  Both parties have signalled that this support will be in the form of a confidence and supply agreement, rather than a formal coalition. There has been a formal legal challenge, claiming the agreement between the Tories and the DUP contravenes the Good Friday Agreement and the Bribery Act. 
On 10 June, a survey of 1,500 ConservativeHome readers found that almost two-thirds of Conservative Party members wanted Theresa May to resign.  A YouGov poll of 1,720 adults for the Sunday Times had 48% saying Theresa May should resign, with 38% against.  A Survation poll of 1,036 adults online for the Mail on Sunday had 49% of people wanting her resignation, with 38% against. 
On 10 June 2017, 10 Downing Street issued a statement that a Conservative–DUP agreement was reached in principle.  A few hours later, the statement was retracted when it was said that it had been "issued in error" and that talks between the Conservative Party and DUP were still ongoing.  Former Prime Minister, John Major is concerned that a deal between the Conservatives and DUP could endanger the Northern Irish peace process. 
On 11 June 2017, former Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne described May as a "dead woman walking".  David Lidington disagrees.  Senior Labour politicians stated that they plan to challenge the Conservative minority government early and to put forward alternative policies in the reply to the Queen's Speech. Jeremy Corbyn said he believed there is a majority in parliament for many issues on which Labour "is sympathetic", giving as examples the repeal of the Under-occupancy penalty ('bedroom tax'), and maintaining the triple lock on pensions and the winter fuel allowance. In an interview conducted on 11 June, Corbyn stated that he expected another election to be held within a year.  
Michael Gove said the minority government will probably reduce austerity and increase spending on public services.  Stephen Bush of the New Statesman also expects less austerity. Bush notes if voters feel there is continued austerity in England, Scotland and Wales while the government spends generously in Northern Ireland to maintain the pact with the DUP then the Conservatives may become more unpopular.  The 1% pay cap on public sector workers is under review according to 10 Downing Street.  and increasing numbers of high ranking Conservatives want to end it. 
On the afternoon of 11 June, Theresa May finalised the composition of her cabinet.
On 3 July 2017, polls suggested May's popularity had dropped drastically since the election on 8 June.
- Following allegations of sexual misconduct, Sir Michael Fallon resigned from his post of Defence Secretary on 1 November 2017.  He was replaced by Gavin Williamson.  Williamson was replaced as Chief Whip by Julian Smith.
- After it was revealed that Priti Patel held unsanctioned meetings with Israeli politicians and officials whilst on a family holiday, thereby violating the Ministerial Code, she was forced to resign from her post of International Development Secretary on 8 November 2017.  She was replaced by Penny Mordaunt. 
- Following an inquiry that found that he had violated the Ministerial Code, Damian Green resigned from his post on 20 December 2017.