Science and technology in Switzerland play an important role in the Swiss economy as very few natural resources are available in the country. The Swiss National Science Foundation, mandated by the Federal government, is the most important institute promoting scientific research.
The first university, the University of Basel, was founded in 1460 and today the country has twelve universities.
- University of Basel, Basel
- University of Bern, Berne
- University of Fribourg, Fribourg
- University of Geneva, Geneva
- University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel
- University of Lausanne (UNIL), Lausanne
- University of Lucerne, Lucerne
- University of Lugano, Lugano
- University of St. Gallen (HSG), St. Gallen
- University of Zurich, Zürich
- Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich), Zürich
- Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne
- Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil (ACW)
- Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux (ALP)
- Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon (ART)
- European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
- Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS), Manno
- Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology (CSEM)
- Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) Swiss Light Source
- Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA)
- Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG)
- Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL)
- Swiss Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (SFIVET) 
- Swiss Graduate School of Public Administration (IDHEAP)
- Idiap Research Institute
- Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence Research (IDSIA)
- Swiss Institute of Comparative Law
- Kurt Bösch University Institute (IUKB) 
- Federal Institute of Metrology (METAS) 
- Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss)
- Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB)
- Swiss Finance Institute
- International Institute for Management Development (IMD)
- Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (IHEID)
- Sempach Bird Observatory
- Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research
- Swiss Nanoscience Institute 
- Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research
- Campus Biotech
- Research Institute of Organic Agriculture
- The Swiss Science Center Technorama is a unique Science museum in the municipality of Winterthur in the canton of Zürich.
Switzerland Space Agency, the Swiss Space Office, has been involved in various space technologies and programs. In addition it was one of the 10 founders of the European Space Agency in 1975 and is the seventh largest contributor to the ESA budget. In the private sector, several companies are implicated in the space industry such as RUAG Space (payload fairings) or Maxon Motors (mars rovers).
Leonhard Euler is considered to be the preeminent mathematician of the 18th century and one of the greatest of all time. A statement attributed to Pierre-Simon Laplace expresses Euler's influence on mathematics: "Read Euler, read Euler, he is the master of us all."  Euler made important discoveries in fields as diverse as calculus and graph theory. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function.
Albert Einstein (naturalized in 1901)  was probably one of the greatest physicists of all time. He is known for his theory of relativity and specifically mass–energy equivalence, expressed by the equation E = mc2 and also contributed in many other areas (cosmology, solid state physics). Einstein was named "Person of the Century" by Time.
In the field of chemistry Germain Henri Hess is known for his discovery of the Hess's law. Albert Hofmann discovered the Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Paul Hermann Müller received the Nobel prize for his discovery of the insecticidal qualities of DDT.
Friedrich Miescher was a Swiss physician who was the first researcher to isolate and characterize Nucleic acid (DNA). Today, a research institute in Basel (the Friedrich Miescher Institute, FMI) is named after him. Emil Theodor Kocher (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909) was known for his work in the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid. The neurologist Walter Rudolf Hess (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949) mapped the areas of the brain that were responsible for the control of several vital bodily functions. The biochemist Werner Arber (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978) is known for his discovery of restriction endonucleases which are essential for all modern biotechnology. The Swiss born Edmond H. Fischer (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992) discovered how reversible phosphorylation works as a switch to activate proteins. Rolf M. Zinkernagel (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996) is famous for his work on the immune system.
Carl Jung (1875-1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and the founder of Analytical Psychology. Jung is considered the first modern psychiatrist to view the human psyche as "by nature religious" and make it the focus of exploration.