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In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.[1][2] The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is potentially possible between any pair within the area, and where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas.[3]

In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science which entails the statistical study of human populations. Population, in a more simple term, is the number of people in a city or town, region, country or world; population is usually determined by a process called census (a process of collecting, analyzing, compiling and publishing data).

Population genetics (ecology)


In population genetics a sex population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together. This means that they can regularly exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring, and such a breeding group is also known therefore as a Gamo deme. This also implies that all members belong to the same species.[3] If the Gamo deme is very large (theoretically, approaching infinity), and all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, the Gamo deme is said to be panmictic.

This seldom occurs in Nature: localization of gamete exchange – through dispersal limitations, preferential mating, cataclysm, or other cause – may lead to small actual Gamo demes which exchange gametes reasonably uniformly within themselves but are virtually separated from their neighboring Gamo demes.

In ecology, the population of a certain species in a certain area can be estimated using the Lincoln Index.

World human population


According to the United States Census Bureau the world's population was about 7.55 billion in 2019[8] and that the 7 billion number was surpassed on 12 March 2012. According to a separate estimate by the United Nations, Earth's population exceeded seven billion in October 2011, a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all of humanity, according to UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.[9]

According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion on 24 February 2006.

Researcher Carl Haub calculated that a total of over 100 billion people have probably been born in the last 2000 years.[12]

Population growth increased significantly as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards.[13] The last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth[13] due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity, particularly beginning in the 1960s,[14] made by the Green Revolution.[15] In 2017 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population will reach about 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100.[16]

In the future, the world's population is expected to peak,[17] after which it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards.

The population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by gradually increasing birth rates.

Human population control is the practice of altering the rate of growth of a human population.

In the 1978s, stress increased between population control advocates and women's health activists who advanced women's reproductive rights as part of a human rights-based approach.[22] Growing opposition to the narrow population control focus led to a significant change in population control policies in the early 1980s.[22]

See also


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