Overijssel (/ˌoʊvərˈaɪsəl/ OH-vər-EYE-səl, Dutch: [ˌoːvərˈɛisəl] (listen); Low German: Oaveriessel [ˌɒːvərˈiːsəl]; German: Oberyssel) is a province of the Netherlands located in the eastern part of the country. The province's name translates to "across the IJssel", from the perspective of the Episcopal principality of Utrecht by which it was held until 1528. The capital city of Overijssel is Zwolle and the largest city is Enschede. The province had a population of 1,142,360 in 2015.
Overijssel is bordered by Germany (Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia) to the east, the Achterhoek region of Gelderland to the south, the Veluwe region of Gelderland and Flevoland to the west, and Friesland and the former moors of Drenthe to the north. Overijssel comprises three regions: Kop van Overijssel in the northwest, Salland in the centre of the province, and Twente in the east. Besides the capital Zwolle, other major cities are Almelo, Deventer, Enschede, and Hengelo.
To the southeast, the province's surface is mostly sandy, interspersed with small rivers such as the Regge and Dinkel and other brooks. In the northwest, the geology is dominated by sediments from the Overijsselse Vecht and clay. The northern parts were once covered by veen (bogs) which separated the dryer and more arable south from Drenthe and which have been exploited as fuel to a large degree. Only small patches survive today (Engbertsdijksvenen near Tubbergen, Witteveen (near Haaksbergen), and the Aamsveen (near Enschede). The extreme northwest is dominated by a system of lakes formed by former peat-mining and protected under the De Weerribben-Wieden National Park status, which is a valuable wetland.
The highest point in Overijssel is the summit of the Tankenberg, a hill in the municipality of Losser, at 85 metres (278 ft). The lowest point is in the Mastenbroek Polder near Kampen at 2 metres (6 ft) below sea level.
Overijssel enjoys an oceanic climate (Cfb in the Köppen classification). However, winters tend to be more severe than the rest of the Netherlands, because of its distance from the coast.
Overijssel was formerly known as Oversticht and also included most of the modern-day province of Drenthe. In 1336, it was made part of Guelders, though it was ceded to the Bishopric of Utrecht in 1347. The Bishops ceded the Oversticht to the Emperor Charles V in 1528, who styled himself Lord of Overijssel, after the Latin name of Oversticht that was known since 1233: Transysla or Transisalania, or Over-IJssel, i.e. the other side of the river IJssel. The people joined with the other Dutch and rebelled against Charles' heir Philip II. Overijssel became governed by the most powerful mayors and lords in the province, including by the luitenant-governor Nicolaas Schmelzing (1561-1629).
After a brief occupation by the forces of the Bishop of Münster (1672–74), Overijssel received a new form of government which granted the stadtholders more power. Widespread resistance against the increased power throughout the provinces eventually led to the formation of the Batavian Republic in 1795. A centralist government arose and the Netherlands was organised into a series of départements, based on those used by revolutionary France.
The French annexed the Batavian Republic in 1810, and Overijssel was organised into the new French département of Bouches-de-l'Yssel. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, the kingdom of the Netherlands and the former province of Overijssel were recreated.
Overijssel was occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II from May 1940 until its liberation in April 1945. The Noordoostpolder, a reclaimed territory which had been laid dry in 1942, was part of Overijssel from 1962 until 1986, when it became part of the newly created province of Flevoland.
The King's Commissioner of Overijssel is currently a vacant position as previous title holder Ank Bijleveld (CDA) was appointed to be Minister of defence on 26 October 2017. The King's Commissioner is the chairman of the Provincial-Executive (executive branch) and the States-Provincial (elected legislature) of the province.
- North Overijssel COROP group Dalfsen (3) Hardenberg (8) Kampen (12) Ommen (16) Staphorst (19) Steenwijkerland (20) Zwartewaterland (24) Zwolle (25)
- South West Overijssel COROP group Deventer (5) Olst-Wijhe (15) Raalte (17)
- Twente COROP group Almelo (1) Borne (2) Dinkelland (4) Enschede (6) Haaksbergen (7) Hellendoorn (9) Hengelo (10) Hof van Twente (11) Losser (13) Oldenzaal (14) Rijssen-Holten (18) Tubbergen (21) Twenterand (22) Wierden (23)