Otorhinolaryngology /oʊtoʊˌraɪnoʊˌlærənˈɡɒlədʒi/ (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat ( ENT) and related structures of the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, ENT doctors, ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons. Patients seek treatment from an otorhinolaryngologist for diseases of the ear, nose, throat, base of the skull, and for the surgical management of cancers and benign tumors of the head and neck.
The term is a combination of New Latin combining forms (oto- + rhino- + laryngo- + -logy) derived from four Ancient Greek words: οὖς ous (gen.: ὠτός otos), "ear", ῥίς rhis, "nose", λάρυγξ larynx, "larynx" and -λογία logia, "study" (cf. Greek ωτορινολαρυγγολόγος, "otorhinolaryngologist").
Otorhinolaryngologists are physicians (MD, DO, MBBS, MBChB, etc.) who, in the United States, complete at least five years of surgical residency training. This comprises six months of general surgical training and four and a half years in specialist surgery. In Canada and the United States, practitioners complete a five-year residency training after medical school.
Following residency training, some otolaryngologist-head & neck surgeons complete an advanced sub-specialty fellowship, where training can be one to two years in duration.
In the United Kingdom entrance to otorhinolaryngology higher surgical training is highly competitive and involves a rigorous national selection process.
(* Currently recognized by American Board of Medical Subspecialties)
In this type of surgery, a surgeon harvests a muscle from the back or from the abdominal region for reconstruction of the skull or the cranial vault.
Bone defects are often the most difficult reconstructions as it requires precise alignment.
The radial forearm is the most commonly dominant use of flap to be used to coverage up damages.
Microvascular reconstruction repair is a common operation that is done on patients who see a Otorhinolaryngologist.
- Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx
- Oral cancer
- Skin cancer of the head & neck
- Thyroid cancer
- Endocrine surgery of the head and neck (thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy)
- Microvascular free flap reconstruction
- Skull base surgery
- Salivary gland cancer
- Dizziness BPPV – benign paroxysmal positional vertigo Labyrinthitis/Vestibular neuronitis Ménière's disease/Endolymphatic hydrops Perilymphatic fistula Acoustic neuroma
- Hearing loss
- Otitis externa – outer ear or ear canal inflammation
- Otitis media – middle ear inflammation
- Perforated eardrum (hole in the eardrum due to infection, trauma, explosion or loud noise)
- Ear surgery
Rhinology includes nasal dysfunction and sinus diseases.
- Nasal obstruction
- Nasal septum deviation
- Sinusitis – acute, chronic
- Environmental allergies
- Pituitary tumor
- Empty nose syndrome
- Severe or recurrent epistaxis
- Caustic ingestion
- Cricotracheal resection
- Laryngotracheal reconstruction
- Myringotomy and tubes
- Obstructive sleep apnea – pediatric
- Dysphonia/hoarseness Laryngitis Reinke's edema Vocal cord nodules and polyps
- Spasmodic dysphonia
- Cancer of the larynx
- Vocology – science and practice of voice habilitation
Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery is a one-year fellowship open to otorhinolaryngologists and plastic surgeons who wish to specialize in the aesthetic and reconstructive surgery of the head, face, and neck.
- Rhinoplasty and septoplasty
- Facelift (rhytidectomy)
- Injectable cosmetic treatments
- Trauma to the face Nasal bone fracture Mandible fracture Orbital fracture Frontal sinus fracture Complex lacerations and soft tissue damage
- Skin cancer (e.g. Basal Cell Carcinoma)