The Monarchs of Brazil were the rulers of Brazil from the time of the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500 until 1889. There are three main stages in the dynastical history of Brazil: Colonial Brazil as part of the Portuguese Empire (1500–1815), the Kingdom of Brazil, a constituent kingdom of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1822), and the independent Empire of Brazil (1822–1889).
The Portuguese officially arrived in Brazil on 22 April 1500 and based on the Treaty of Tordesilhas, it became a possession of Portugal. The Kings of Portugal then were the Monarchs over Brazil until the transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil in 1807. On 16 December 1815 the Prince Regent John, the future king John VI raised Brazil to the status of a kingdom, thus making his mother, Maria I, the reigning Queen, the first Monarch of Brazil. Having proclaimed independence from Portugal in 1822, Pedro I, son of John VI, was crowned Emperor of Brazil on 1 December 1822.