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Title page of first volume of Grimms' <i>Kinder- und Hausmärchen</i> (1819) 2nd Ed.
Title page of first volume of Grimms' Kinder- und Hausmärchen (1819) 2nd Ed.

Grimms' Fairy Tales, originally known as the Children's and Household Tales (German: Kinder- und Hausmärchen, pronounced [ˌkɪndɐ ʔʊnt ˈhaʊsmɛːɐ̯çən]), is a collection of fairy tales by the Grimm brothers or "Brothers Grimm", Jakob and Wilhelm, first published on 20 December 1812. The first edition contained 86 stories, and by the seventh edition in 1857, had 211 unique fairy tales.

Origin


Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm were two of eight children from their mother Dorothea (Née Zimmer) and father Philipp Wilhelm Grimm.

Shortly after attending Lyzeum, their grandfather died and they were again left to themselves to support their family in the future.

Jacob attended the university first and showed proof of his hard work ethic and quick intelligence.

In 1808, their mother died, and it was hard on Jacob because he took the position in the family as a father figure, while also trying to be a brother.

Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano were good friends of the brothers and wanted to publish folk tales, so they asked the brothers to collect oral tales for publication. The Grimms collected many old books and asked friends and acquaintances in Kassel to tell tales and to gather stories from others. Jacob and Wilhelm sought to collect these stories in order to write a history of old German Poesie and to preserve history.[1]

Composition


The first volume of the first edition was published in 1812, containing 86 stories; the second volume of 70 stories followed in 1815.

The first volumes were much criticized because, although they were called "Children's Tales", they were not regarded as suitable for children, both for the scholarly information included and the subject matter.[3]The%20Hard%20Facts%20of%20the%20Grimms'%20Fairy%20]]Many changes through the editions – such as turning the wicked mother of the first edition in Snow White Grethel) to a stepmother, were probably made with an eye to such suitability. Jack Zipes believes that the Grimms made the change in later editions because they “held motherhood sacred”.[4]

They removed sexual references—such as Rapunzel's innocently asking why her dress was getting tight around her belly, and thus naively revealing to the witch Dame Gothel her pregnancy and the prince's visits—but, in many respects, violence, particularly when punishing villains, was increased.[5]

Popularity


The brothers' initial intention of their first book, Children’s and Household Tales, was to establish a name for themselves in the world.

In 1830, Jacob became a professor at University of Göttingen and shortly after, in 1835, Wilhelm also became a professor. During these years Jacob wrote a third volume of German Grammar and Wilhelm prepared the third revision of the Children’s and Household Tales.[1]

In 1837, King Ernst August II revoked the constitution of 1833 and was attempting to restore absolutism for the Kingdom of Hannover. Since Göttingen was a part of Hannover, the brothers were expected to take an oath of allegiance. However, the brothers and five other professors led a protest against this and were heavily supported by the student body since all of these professors were well renowned. Jacob left Göttingen immediately and Wilhelm followed him a few months later back to Kassel.[1]

In Kassel, the Grimms devoted themselves to researching and studying.

Influence


Kinder- und Hausmärchen (Children and Household Tales) is listed by UNESCO in its Memory of the World Registry.[2]

The Grimms believed that the most natural and pure forms of culture were linguistic and based in history.[2] The work of the Brothers Grimm influenced other collectors, both inspiring them to collect tales and leading them to similarly believe, in a spirit of romantic nationalism, that the fairy tales of a country were particularly representative of it, to the neglect of cross-cultural influence.[7] Among those influenced were the Russian Alexander Afanasyev, the Norwegians Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe, the English Joseph Jacobs, and Jeremiah Curtin, an American who collected Irish tales.[8]The%20Great%20Fairy%20Tale%20Tradition%3A%20From%20]]There was not always a pleased reaction to their collection. Joseph Jacobs was in part inspired by his complaint that English children did not read English fairy tales;Perrault began, the Grimms completed".

W. H. Auden praised the collection during World War II as one of the founding works of Western culture.[5] The tales themselves have been put to many uses. Adolf Hitler praised them as folkish tales showing children with sound racial instincts seeking racially pure marriage partners, and so strongly that the Allies of World War II warned against them;[11]The%20Annota]]or instance, Cinderella ine as racially pure, the stepmother as an alien, and the prince with an unspoiled instinct being able to distinguish.[12] [13]

Three individual works of Wilhelm Grimm include Altdänische Heldenlieder, Balladen und Märchen ('Old Danish Heroic Songs, Ballads, and Folktales') in 1811, Über deutsche Runen ('On German Runes') in 1821, and Die deutsche Heldensage ('The German Heroic Saga') in 1829.

The Grimm anthology has been a source of inspiration for artists and composers.

English-language collections


"Grimms' Fairy Tales in English" by D. L. Ashliman provides a hyper-linked list of 50 to 100 English-language collections that have been digitized and are available online.

These are some translations of the original collection, also known as the first edition of Volume I. Zipes and Loo are the translators.

  • Grimm, Jacob; Grimm, Wilhelm (2014).
  • Loo, Oliver (2014).

These are some translations of the two-volume seventh edition: Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm, Kinder- und Hausmärchen, 7th ed. (Berlin: Duncker, 1857).

  • Grimm’s Household Tales, with Author’s Notes, ed. and trans. by Margaret Hunt, 2 vols (London: Bell, 1884), vol. 1 [21], vol. 2 [22] [15] Reprinted as Grimm Brothers; Margarete Hunt (Translator) (1944).
  • Manheim, Ralph (trans.), Grimms’ Tales for Young and Old: The Complete Stories (New York: Doubleday, 1977) [trans. from Kinder- und Hausmärchen gesammelt durch die Brüder Grimm (Munich: Winkler, 1949). Manheim believed this to be a reprint of the second, 1819 edition of Kinder- und Hausmärchen, but it was in fact a reprint of the 7th, 1857 edition][3]
  • Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, Selected Tales, trans. by David Luke, Gilbert McKay and Philip Schofield (London: Penguin, 1982)[18]

List of Stories by the Brothers Grimm


The code "KHM" stands for Kinder- und Hausmärchen. The titles are those as of 1857. Some titles in 1812 were different. All editions from 1812 until 1857 split the stories into two volumes.

This section contains 201 listings, as "KHM 1" to "KMH 210" in numerical sequence plus "KMH 151a".

  • KHM 136: Iron John (Eisenhans)
  • KHM 137: The Three Black Princesses (De drei schwatten Prinzessinnen)
  • KHM 138: Knoist and his Three Sons (Knoist un sine dre Sühne)
  • KHM 139: The Maid of Brakel (Dat Mäken von Brakel)
  • KHM 140: My Household (Das Hausgesinde)
  • KHM 141: The Lambkin and the Little Fish (Das Lämmchen und das Fischchen)
  • KHM 142: Simeli Mountain (Simeliberg)
  • KHM 143: Going a Traveling (Up Reisen gohn) appeared in the 1819 edition KHM 143 in the 1812/1815 edition was Die Kinder in Hungersnot
  • KHM 144: The Donkey (Das Eselein)
  • KHM 145: The Ungrateful Son (Der undankbare Sohn)
  • KHM 146: The Turnip (Die Rübe)
  • KHM 147: The Old Man Made Young Again (Das junggeglühte Männlein)
  • KHM 148: The Lord's Animals and the Devil's (Des Herrn und des Teufels Getier)
  • KHM 149: The Beam (Der Hahnenbalken)
  • KHM 150: The Old Beggar Woman (Die alte Bettelfrau)
  • KHM 151: The Three Sluggards (Die drei Faulen)
  • KHM 151a: The Twelve Idle Servants (Die zwölf faulen Knechte)
  • KHM 152: The Shepherd Boy (Das Hirtenbüblein)
  • KHM 153: The Star Money (Die Sterntaler)
  • KHM 154: The Stolen Farthings (Der gestohlene Heller)
  • KHM 155: Looking for a Bride (Die Brautschau)
  • KHM 156: The Hurds (Die Schlickerlinge)
  • KHM 157: The Sparrow and His Four Children (Der Sperling und seine vier Kinder)
  • KHM 158: The Story of Schlauraffen Land (Das Märchen vom Schlaraffenland)
  • KHM 159: The Ditmarsch Tale of Lies (Das dietmarsische Lügenmärchen)
  • KHM 160: A Riddling Tale (Rätselmärchen)
  • KHM 161: Snow-White and Rose-Red (Schneeweißchen und Rosenrot)
  • KHM 162: The Wise Servant (Der kluge Knecht)
  • KHM 163: The Glass Coffin (Der gläserne Sarg)
  • KHM 164: Lazy Henry (Der faule Heinz)
  • KHM 165: The Griffin (Der Vogel Greif)
  • KHM 166: Strong Hans (Der starke Hans)
  • KHM 167: The Peasant in Heaven (Das Bürli im Himmel)
  • KHM 168: Lean Lisa (Die hagere Liese)
  • KHM 169: The Hut in the Forest (Das Waldhaus)
  • KHM 170: Sharing Joy and Sorrow (Lieb und Leid teilen)
  • KHM 171: The Willow Wren (Der Zaunkönig)
  • KHM 172: The Sole (Die Scholle)
  • KHM 173: The Bittern and the Hoopoe (Rohrdommel und Wiedehopf)
  • KHM 174: The Owl (Die Eule)
  • KHM 175: The Moon (Brothers Grimm) (Der Mond)
  • KHM 176: The Duration of Life (Die Lebenszeit)
  • KHM 177: Death's Messengers (Die Boten des Todes)
  • KHM 178: Master Pfreim (Meister Pfriem)
  • KHM 179: The Goose-Girl at the Well (Die Gänsehirtin am Brunnen)
  • KHM 180: Eve's Various Children (Die ungleichen Kinder Evas)
  • KHM 181: The Nixie of the Mill-Pond (Die Nixe im Teich)
  • KHM 182: The Little Folks' Presents (Die Geschenke des kleinen Volkes)
  • KHM 183: The Giant and the Tailor (Der Riese und der Schneider)
  • KHM 184: The Nail (Brothers Grimm) (Der Nagel)
  • KHM 185: The Poor Boy in the Grave (Der arme Junge im Grab)
  • KHM 186: The True Bride (Die wahre Braut)
  • KHM 187: The Hare and the Hedgehog (Der Hase und der Igel)
  • KHM 188: Spindle, Shuttle, and Needle (Spindel, Weberschiffchen und Nadel)
  • KHM 189: The Peasant and the Devil (Der Bauer und der Teufel)
  • KHM 190: The Crumbs on the Table (Die Brosamen auf dem Tisch)
  • KHM 191: The Sea-Hare (Das Meerhäschen)
  • KHM 192: The Master Thief (Der Meisterdieb)
  • KHM 193: The Drummer (Der Trommler)
  • KHM 194: The Ear of Corn (Die Kornähre)
  • KHM 195: The Grave Mound (Der Grabhügel)
  • KHM 196: Old Rinkrank (Oll Rinkrank)
  • KHM 197: The Crystal Ball (Die Kristallkugel)
  • KHM 198: Maid Maleen (Jungfrau Maleen)
  • KHM 199: The Boots of Buffalo Leather (Der Stiefel von üffelleder)
  • KHM 200: The Golden Key (Der goldene Schlüssel)

The children's legends (Kinder-legende)first appeared in the G. Reimer 1819 edition at the end of volume 2

  • KHM 201: Saint Joseph in the Forest (Der heilige Joseph im Walde)
  • KHM 202: The Twelve Apostles (Brothers Grimm) (Die zwölf Apostel)
  • KHM 203: The Rose (Die Rose)
  • KHM 204: Poverty and Humility Lead to Heaven (Armut und Demut führen zum Himmel)
  • KHM 205: God's Food (Gottes Speise)
  • KHM 206: The Three Green Twigs (Die drei grünen Zweige)
  • KHM 207: The Blessed Virgin's Little Glass (Muttergottesgläschen) or Our Lady's Little Glass
  • KHM 208: The Little Old Lady (Das alte Mütterchen) or The Aged Mother
  • KHM 209: The Heavenly Marriage (Die himmlische Hochzeit) or The Heavenly Wedding
  • KHM 210: The Hazel Branch (Die Haselrute)

No longer included in the last edition


  • 1812 KHM 6 Von der Nachtigall und der Blindschleiche (The nightingale and the slow worm) also (The Nightingale and the Blindworm)
  • 1812 KHM 8 Die Hand mit dem Messer (The hand with the knife)
  • 1812 KHM 22 Wie Kinder Schlachtens miteinander gespielt haben
  • 1812 KHM 27 Der Tod und der Gänsehirt (Death and the Goose Keeper)
  • 1812 KHM 33 Der gestiefelte Kater
  • 1812 KHM 37 Von der Serviette, dem Tornister, dem Kanonenhütlein und dem Horn (Of the napkin, the knapsack, the Cannon guarding flax, and the Horn)
  • 1812 KHM 43 Die wunderliche Gasterei (The strange Inn/The Wonderly Guesting Manor)
  • 1812 KHM 54 Hans Dumm (Foolish Hans)
  • 1812 KHM 62 Blaubart
  • 1812 KHM 66 Hurleburlebutz
  • 1812 KHM 70 Der Okerlo (The Okerlo)
  • 1812 KHM 71 Prinzessin Mäusehaut (Princess Mouse Skin)
  • 1812 KHM 72 Das Birnli will nit fallen (The Fruit Will Not Fall)
  • 1812 KHM 73 Das Mörderschloss (The Murder Castle)
  • 1812 KHM 77 Vom Schreiner und Drechsler (Of The Carpenter and Turner)
  • 1812 KHM 82 Die drei Schwestern (The Three Sisters)
  • 1812 KHM 85A Schneeblume (Snow Flower)
  • 1812 KHM 85D Vom Prinz Johannes (Fragment) (Of Prince Johannes)
  • Die Prinzessin auf der Erbse
  • Der Faule und der Fleißige (The sluggard and the diligent)
  • Der gute Lappen (Fragment) (The good rag)
  • Die heilige Frau Kummernis
  • Die Krähen (The Crows)
  • Der Löwe und der Frosch (The Lion and the Frog)
  • Der Räuber und seine Söhne (The Robber and His Sons)
  • Der Soldat und der Schreiner (The Soldier and the Carpenter)
  • Die treuen Tiere (The faithful animals)
  • Das Unglück (The Accident)
  • Der wilde Mann (The Wild Man)
  • The Smith and the Devil
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