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World headquarters in <a href="/content/Warwick,_New_York" style="color:blue">Warwick</a>, New York
World headquarters in Warwick, New York

Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.[10] The group reports a worldwide membership of approximately 8.58 million adherents involved in evangelism and an annual Memorial attendance of over 20 million.[9] Jehovah's Witnesses are directed by the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses, a group of elders in Warwick, New York, United States, which establishes all doctrines[11] based on its interpretations of the Bible.[12][13] They believe that the destruction of the present world system at Armageddon is imminent, and that the establishment of God's kingdom over the earth is the only solution for all problems faced by humanity.[14]

The group emerged from the Bible Student movement founded in the late 1870s by Charles Taze Russell, who also co-founded Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society in 1881 to organize and print the movement's publications.[8] A leadership dispute after Russell's death resulted in several groups breaking away, with Joseph Franklin Rutherford retaining control of the Watch Tower Society and its properties.[15] Rutherford made significant organizational and doctrinal changes, including adoption of the name Jehovah's witnesses [1] in 1931 to distinguish them from other Bible Student groups and symbolize a break with the legacy of Russell's traditions.[16]Millions%20Now%20Living%20Will%20N]]%2C%201975]].%20October%201%2C%201931.%20]]

Jehovah's Witnesses are best known for their door-to-door preaching, distributing literature such as The Watchtower and Awake!, and for refusing military service and blood transfusions. They consider the use of God's name vital for proper worship. They reject Trinitarianism, inherent immortality of the soul, and hellfire, which they consider to be unscriptural doctrines. They do not observe Christmas, Easter, birthdays or other holidays and customs they consider to have pagan origins incompatible with Christianity.[20]In%20Search%20of%20Christian%20Fre]]hey prefer to use their own Bible translation, the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures[21] ally quotes and cites other Bible translations.[22][23] Adherents commonly refer to their body of beliefs as "The Truth" and consider themselves to be "in the Truth".[24] They consider secular society to be morally corrupt and under the influence of Satan, and most limit their social interaction with non-Witnesses.[25] Congregational disciplinary actions include disfellowshipping, their term for formal expulsion and shunning.[26]Exploring%20New%20Relig]]aptized individuals who formally leave are considered and are also shunned. Disfellowshipped and disassociated individuals may eventually be reinstated if deemed repentant.

The group's position regarding conscientious objection to military service and refusal to salute state symbols (like national anthems and flags) has brought it into conflict with some governments.[28][29][30][31][32][33] Consequently, some Jehovah's Witnesses have been persecuted and their activities are banned or restricted in some countries. Persistent legal challenges by Jehovah's Witnesses have influenced legislation related to civil rights in several countries.[34]

The organization has received criticism regarding biblical translation, doctrines, and alleged coercion of its members. The Watch Tower Society has made various unfulfilled predictions about major biblical events such as Christ's Second Coming, the advent of God's Kingdom, and Armageddon. Their policies for handling cases of child sexual abuse have been the subject of various formal inquiries.

History


In 1870, Charles Taze Russell and others formed a group in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to study the Bible.[16] During the course of his ministry, Russell disputed many beliefs of mainstream Christianity including immortality of the soul, hellfire, predestination, the fleshly return of Jesus Christ, the Trinity, and the burning up of the world.[36] In 1876, Russell met Nelson H. Barbour; later that year they jointly produced the book Three Worlds, which combined restitutionist views with end time prophecy. The book taught that God's dealings with humanity were divided dispensationally, each ending with a "harvest," that Christ had returned as an invisible spirit being in 1874[36] inaugurating the "harvest of the Gospel age," and that 1914 would mark the end of a 2520-year period called "the Gentile Times,"[37]Counting%20the%20Days%20to%20Arm]]t which time world society would be replaced by the full establishment of God's kingdom on earth.[39].%20IV%20The%20Battle%20of%20Arma]].%20Wa]]ginning in 1878 Russell and Barbour jointly edited a religious journal,.Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence[42][43]

From 1879, Watch Tower supporters gathered as autonomous congregations to study the Bible topically. Thirty congregations were founded, and during 1879 and 1880, Russell visited each to provide the format he recommended for conducting meetings.[44][45][46]Studies%20in%20the%20Scripture]]n 1881, was presided over by William Henry Conley, and in 1884, Russell incorporated the society as a non-profit business to distribute tracts and Bibles.[47][48]%20by%20]] and full-time colporteurs,[42] and was appointing foreign missionaries and establishing branch offices. By the 1910s, Russell's organization maintained nearly a hundred "pilgrims," or traveling preachers.[50] Russell engaged in significant global publishing efforts during his ministry,[51][52] and by 1912, he was the most distributed Christian author in the United States.[53]%2C%20January%201910%20pg.%20130]]

Russell moved the Watch Tower Society's headquarters to Brooklyn, New York, in 1909, combining printing and corporate offices with a house of worship; volunteers were housed in a nearby residence he named Bethel. He identified the religious movement as "Bible Students," and more formally as the International Bible Students Association.[55] By 1910, about 50,000 people worldwide were associated with the movement[56] and congregations re-elected him annually as their "pastor."[57] Russell died October 31, 1916, at the age of 64 while returning from a ministerial speaking tour.[16]

In January 1917, the Watch Tower Society's legal representative, Joseph Franklin Rutherford, was elected as its next president. His election was disputed, and members of the Board of Directors accused him of acting in an autocratic and secretive manner.[59][60] The divisions between his supporters and opponents triggered a major turnover of members over the next decade.[37]Counting%20the%20Days%20to%20Arm]] [13] In June 1917, he released as a seventh volume of Russell's Studies in the Scriptures ook, published as the posthumous work of Russell, was a compilation of his commentaries on the Bible books of Ezekiel and Revelation, plus numerous additions by Bible Students Clayton Woodworth and George Fisher.[62][63][37][65] It strongly criticized Catholic and Protestant clergy and Christian involvement in the Great War.[66] As a result, Watch Tower Society directors were jailed for sedition under the Espionage Act in 1918 and members were subjected to mob violence; the directors were released in March 1919 and charges against them were dropped in 1920.[16]

Rutherford centralized organizational control of the Watch Tower Society.

On July 26, 1931, at a convention in Columbus, Ohio, Rutherford introduced the new name – Jehovah's witnesses – based on Isaiah 43:10: "'You are my witnesses,' declares Jehovah, 'Yes, my servant whom I have chosen, So that you may know and have faith in me And understand that I am the same One. Before me no God was formed, And after me there has been none.'" (New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures 2013 Edition) —which was adopted by resolution. The name was chosen to distinguish his group of Bible Students from other independent groups that had severed ties with the Society, as well as symbolize the instigation of new outlooks and the promotion of fresh evangelizing methods.[16]Millions%20Now%20Living%20Will%20N]]%2C%201975]].%20October%201%2C%201931.%20]]1932, Rutherford eliminated the system of locally elected elders and in 1938, introduced what he called a "theocratic" (literally, ) organizational system, under which appointments in congregations worldwide were made from the Brooklyn headquarters.

From 1932, it was taught that the "little flock" of 144,000 would not be the only people to survive Armageddon.

As their interpretations of the Bible evolved, Witness publications decreed that saluting national flags is a form of idolatry, which led to a new outbreak of mob violence and government opposition in the United States, Canada, Germany, and other countries.[86][87]

Worldwide membership of Jehovah's Witnesses reached 113,624 in 5,323 congregations by the time of Rutherford's death in January 1942.[88].%20Watch%20Towe]]

Nathan Knorr was appointed as third president of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society in 1942. Knorr commissioned a new translation of the Bible, the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, the full version of which was released in 1961. He organized large international assemblies, instituted new training programs for members, and expanded missionary activity and branch offices throughout the world.[90] Knorr's presidency was also marked by an increasing use of explicit instructions guiding Witnesses in their lifestyle and conduct, and a greater use of congregational judicial procedures to enforce a strict moral code.[91][92]

From 1966, Witness publications and convention talks built anticipation of the possibility that Christ's thousand-year reign might begin in late 1975[93][94]Historical%20Dictiona]]r shortly thereafter.[95][97][98] of active members exceeded two million. Membership declined during the late 1970s after expectations for 1975 were proved wrong.[99][24][101][102] Watch Tower Society literature did not state dogmatically that 1975 would definitely mark the end,[95] but in 1980 the Watch Tower Society admitted its responsibility in building up hope regarding that year.[103][104]

The offices of elder and ministerial servant were restored to Witness congregations in 1972, with appointments made from headquarters[105] (and later, also by branch committees).

Organization


Jehovah's Witnesses are organized hierarchically, in what the leadership calls a "theocratic organization", reflecting their belief that it is God's "visible organization" on earth.[111][112][113] The organization is led by the Governing Body—an all-male group that varies in size, but since January 2018 has comprised eight members,[114] all of whom profess to be of the "anointed" class with a hope of heavenly life—based in the Watch Tower Society's Warwick headquarters.[115][116]The%20Orwellian%20Wor]]here is no election for membership; new members are selected by the existing body.[118][119]faithful and discreet slave class" (then approximately 10,000 self-professed "anointed" Jehovah's Witnesses).[20][121] At the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Watch Tower Society, the "faithful and discreet slave" was defined as referring to the Governing Body only.[122] The Governing Body directs several committees that are responsible for administrative functions, including publishing, assembly programs and evangelizing activities.[113] It appoints all branch committee members and traveling overseers, after they have been recommended by local branches, with traveling overseers supervising circuits of congregations within their jurisdictions. Traveling overseers appoint local elders and ministerial servants, and while branch offices may appoint regional committees for matters such as Kingdom Hall construction or disaster relief.[123] The leadership and supporting staff lives in properties owned by the organization worldwide referred to as "Bethel" where they operate as a religious community and administrative unit.[124] Their living expenses and those of other full-time volunteers are covered by the organization along with a basic monthly stipend.[125][96]The%20Orwell]]

Each congregation has a body of appointed unpaid male elders and ministerial servants.

Baptism is a requirement for being considered a member of Jehovah's Witnesses. Jehovah's Witnesses do not practice infant baptism,[132] and previous baptisms performed by other denominations are not considered valid.[20]In%20Search%20of%20Christian%20Fre]]ndividuals undergoing baptism must affirm publicly that dedication and baptism identify them "as one of Jehovah's Witnesses in association with God's spirit-directed organization," n."[134][135] Their literature emphasizes the need for members to be obedient and loyal to Jehovah and to "his organization,"[20][137][2] stating that individuals must remain part of it to receive God's favor and to survive Armageddon.[138][139][140]

The organization produces a significant amount of literature as part of its evangelism activities.[141] The Watch Tower Society has produced over 220 million copies of the New World Translation in whole or in part in over 160 languages.[142] The Watchtower and Awake! are the most widely distributed magazines in the world.[143] Translation of Witness publications is done by over 2000 volunteers worldwide, producing literature in several hundred languages.[144] Publications are also available online at the organization's official website.

Much of their funding is provided by donations, primarily from members. There is no tithing or collection.[103]Persecution%20and%20Resistance%20of]]n 2001 Newsday e of New York's forty richest corporations, with revenues exceeding $950 million.[141][145] The organization reported for the same year that it "spent over $70.9 million in caring for special pioneers, missionaries, and traveling overseers in their field service assignments."[146][3]

Beliefs


Jehovah's Witnesses believe their denomination is a restoration of first-century Christianity.[147] Doctrines of Jehovah's Witnesses are established by the Governing Body, which assumes responsibility for interpreting and applying scripture.[13][148][149] The Governing Body does not issue any single, comprehensive "statement of faith", but prefers to express its doctrinal position in a variety of ways through publications published by the Watch Tower Society.[150] Their publications teach that doctrinal changes and refinements result from a process of progressive revelation, in which God gradually reveals his will and purpose,[151][152][153][154] and that such enlightenment or "new light"[155] results from the application of reason and study,[156] the guidance of the holy spirit, and direction from Jesus Christ and angels.[157] The Society also teaches that members of the Governing Body are helped by the holy spirit to discern "deep truths", which are then considered by the entire Governing Body before it makes doctrinal decisions.[158] The group's leadership, while disclaiming divine inspiration and infallibility,[159] is said to provide "divine guidance"[160] through its teachings described as "based on God's Word thus... not from men, but from Jehovah."[161][162]

The entire Protestant canon of scripture is considered the inspired, inerrant word of God.[163] Jehovah's Witnesses consider the Bible to be scientifically and historically accurate and reliable[164] and interpret much of it literally, but accept parts of it as symbolic.[165] They consider the Bible to be the final authority for all their beliefs,[166] although sociologist Andrew Holden's ethnographic study of the group concluded that pronouncements of the Governing Body, through Watch Tower Society publications, carry almost as much weight as the Bible.[167] Regular personal Bible reading is frequently recommended; Witnesses are discouraged from formulating doctrines and "private ideas" reached through Bible research independent of Watch Tower Society publications, and are cautioned against reading other religious literature.[168][169][170] Adherents are told to have "complete confidence" in the leadership, avoid skepticism about what is taught in the Watch Tower Society's literature, and "not advocate or insist on personal opinions or harbor private ideas when it comes to Bible understanding."[171][172][173][159] The organization makes no provision for members to criticize or contribute to official teachings[175] and all Witnesses must abide by its doctrines and organizational requirements.[176]

Jehovah's Witnesses emphasize the use of God's name, and they prefer the form Jehovah—a vocalization of God's name based on the Tetragrammaton.[177][178][179] They believe that Jehovah is the only true God, the creator of all things, and the "Universal Sovereign". They believe that all worship should be directed toward him, and that he is not part of a Trinity;[180] consequently, the group places more emphasis on God than on Christ.[181][182] They believe that the Holy Spirit is God's applied power or "active force", rather than a person.[180][184]

Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Jesus is God's only direct creation, that everything else was created through Christ by means of God's power, and that the initial unassisted act of creation uniquely identifies Jesus as God's "only-begotten Son".[185] Jesus served as a redeemer and a ransom sacrifice to pay for the sins of humanity.[186] They believe Jesus died on a single upright post rather than the traditional cross.[187] Biblical references to the Archangel Michael, Abaddon (Apollyon), and the Word are interpreted as names for Jesus in various roles.[188] Jesus is considered to be the only intercessor and high priest between God and humanity, and appointed by God as the king and judge of his kingdom.[189] His role as a mediator (referred to in 1 Timothy 2:5) is applied to the 'anointed' class, though the 'other sheep' are said to also benefit from the arrangement.[190]

Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Satan was originally a perfect angel who developed feelings of self-importance and craved worship. Satan influenced Adam and Eve to disobey God, and humanity subsequently became participants in a challenge involving the competing claims of Jehovah and Satan to universal sovereignty.[191] Other angels who sided with Satan became demons.

Jehovah's Witnesses teach that Satan and his demons were cast down to earth from heaven after October 1, 1914,[192] at which point the end times began. They believe that Satan is the ruler of the current world order,[191] that human society is influenced and misled by Satan and his demons, and that they are a cause of human suffering. They also believe that human governments are controlled by Satan,[193] but that he does not directly control each human ruler.[194]

Jehovah's Witnesses believe death is a state of non-existence with no consciousness. There is no Hell of fiery torment; Hades and Sheol are understood to refer to the condition of death, termed the common grave.[195] Jehovah's Witnesses consider the soul to be a life or a living body that can die.[196] Jehovah's Witnesses believe that humanity is in a sinful state,[196] from which release is only possible by means of Jesus' shed blood as a ransom, or atonement, for the sins of humankind.[197]

Witnesses believe that a "little flock" of 144,000 selected humans go to heaven, but that the majority (the "other sheep") are to be resurrected by God to a cleansed earth after Armageddon.

Jehovah's Witnesses believe that God's Kingdom is a literal government in heaven, ruled by Jesus Christ and 144,000 "spirit-anointed" Christians drawn from the earth, which they associate with Jesus' reference to a "new covenant".[205][206] The kingdom is viewed as the means by which God will accomplish his original purpose for the earth, transforming it into a paradise without sickness or death.[180] It is said to have been the focal point of Jesus' ministry on earth.[208] They believe the kingdom was established in heaven in 1914,[209] and that Jehovah's Witnesses serve as representatives of the kingdom on earth.[180][211]

A central teaching of Jehovah's Witnesses is that the current world era, or "system of things", entered the "last days" in 1914 and faces imminent destruction through intervention by God and Jesus Christ, leading to deliverance for those who worship God acceptably.[212] They consider all other present-day religions to be false, identifying them with "Babylon the Great", or the "harlot", of Revelation 17,[213] and believe that they will soon be destroyed by the United Nations, which they believe is represented in scripture by the scarlet-colored wild beast of Revelation chapter 17. This development will mark the beginning of the "great tribulation".[214][215] Satan will subsequently use world governments to attack Jehovah's Witnesses, an action that will prompt God to begin the war of Armageddon, during which all forms of government and all people not counted as Christ's "sheep" will be destroyed. After Armageddon, God will extend his heavenly kingdom to include earth, which will be transformed into a paradise similar to the Garden of Eden.[216] Most of those who had died before God's intervention will gradually be resurrected during the thousand year "judgment day". This judgment will be based on their actions after resurrection rather than past deeds. At the end of the thousand years, Christ will hand all authority back to God. Then a final test will take place when Satan is released to mislead perfect mankind. Those who fail will be destroyed, along with Satan and his demons. The end result will be a fully tested, glorified human race on earth.[217][218]

Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Jesus Christ began to rule in heaven as king of God's kingdom in October 1914, and that Satan was subsequently ousted from heaven to the earth, resulting in "woe" to humanity.

Practices


Meetings for worship and study are held at Kingdom Halls, which are typically functional in character, and do not contain religious symbols.[221] Witnesses are assigned to a congregation in whose "territory" they usually reside and attend weekly services they refer to as "meetings" as scheduled by congregation elders. The meetings are largely devoted to study of Watch Tower Society literature and the Bible. The format of the meetings is established by the group's headquarters, and the subject matter for most meetings is the same worldwide.[221] Congregations meet for two sessions each week comprising four distinct meetings that total about three-and-a-half hours, typically gathering mid-week (two meetings) and on the weekend (two meetings). Prior to 2009, congregations met three times each week; these meetings were condensed, with the intention that members dedicate an evening for "family worship".[222][223] Gatherings are opened and closed with kingdom songs (hymns) and brief prayers. Twice each year, Witnesses from a number of congregations that form a "circuit" gather for a one-day assembly. Larger groups of congregations meet once a year for a three-day "regional convention", usually at rented stadiums or auditoriums.[224] Their most important and solemn event is the commemoration of the "Lord's Evening Meal", or "Memorial of Christ's Death" on the date of the Jewish Passover.[225]

Jehovah's Witnesses are perhaps best known for their efforts to spread their beliefs, most notably by visiting people from house to house,[37]Counting%20the%20Days%20to%20Arm]] [228][229]"Bible study" with any person who is not already a member,[230] with the intention that the student be baptized as a member of the group;[231][135] Witnesses are advised to consider discontinuing Bible studies with students who show no interest in becoming members.[233][96] Witnesses are taught they are under a biblical command to engage in public preaching.[235][236] They are instructed to devote as much time as possible to their ministry and are required to submit an individual monthly "Field Service Report".[96][238] Baptized members who fail to report a month of preaching are termed "irregular" and may be counseled by elders;[239][240] those who do not submit reports for six consecutive months are termed "inactive".[241]

All sexual relations outside of marriage are grounds for expulsion if the individual is not deemed repentant;[242][243] homosexual activity is considered a serious sin, and same-sex marriages are forbidden. Abortion is considered murder.[244] Suicide is considered to be "self-murder" and a sin against God.[245] Modesty in dress and grooming is frequently emphasized. Gambling, drunkenness, illegal drugs, and tobacco use are forbidden.[246] Drinking of alcoholic beverages is permitted in moderation.[244]

The family structure is patriarchal. The husband is considered to have authority on family decisions, but is encouraged to solicit his wife's thoughts and feelings, as well as those of his children. Marriages are required to be monogamous and legally registered.[247][248] Marrying a non-believer, or endorsing such a union, is strongly discouraged and carries religious sanctions.[249][250]

Divorce is discouraged, and remarriage is forbidden unless a divorce is obtained on the grounds of adultery, which they refer to as "a scriptural divorce".[251] If a divorce is obtained for any other reason, remarriage is considered adulterous unless the prior spouse has died or is since considered to have committed sexual immorality.[252] Extreme physical abuse, willful non-support of one's family, and what the denomination terms "absolute endangerment of spirituality" are considered grounds for legal separation.[253][254]

Formal discipline is administered by congregation elders.

Jehovah's Witnesses believe that the Bible condemns the mixing of religions, on the basis that there can only be one truth from God, and therefore reject interfaith and ecumenical movements.[267][268][269] They believe that only Jehovah's Witnesses represent true Christianity, and that other religions fail to meet all the requirements set by God and will soon be destroyed.[270] Jehovah's Witnesses are taught that it is vital to remain "separate from the world." The Witnesses' literature defines the "world" as "the mass of mankind apart from Jehovah's approved servants" and teach that it is morally contaminated and ruled by Satan.[271][272][273] Witnesses are taught that association with "worldly" people presents a "danger" to their faith,[274] and are instructed to minimize social contact with non-members to better maintain their own standards of morality.[275][20]In%20Search%20of%20Christian%20Fre]] [277]university trade schools[94][280]

Jehovah's Witnesses believe their highest allegiance belongs to God's kingdom, which is viewed as an actual government in heaven, with Christ as king.

They do not work in industries associated with the military, do not serve in the armed services,[288] and refuse national military service, which in some countries may result in their arrest and imprisonment.[289] They do not salute or pledge allegiance to flags or sing national anthems or patriotic songs.[290] Jehovah's Witnesses see themselves as a worldwide brotherhood that transcends national boundaries and ethnic loyalties.[291] Sociologist Ronald Lawson has suggested the group's intellectual and organizational isolation, coupled with the intense indoctrination of adherents, rigid internal discipline and considerable persecution, has contributed to the consistency of its sense of urgency in its apocalyptic message.[292]

Jehovah's Witnesses refuse blood transfusions, which they consider a violation of God's law based on their interpretation of Acts 15:28, 29 and other scriptures.[293][294][295] Since 1961 the willing acceptance of a blood transfusion by an unrepentant member has been grounds for expulsion from the group.[296][297] Members are directed to refuse blood transfusions, even in "a life-or-death situation".[298][299][96] Jehovah's Witnesses accept non-blood alternatives and other medical procedures in lieu of blood transfusions, and their literature provides information about non-blood medical procedures.[301]

Though Jehovah's Witnesses do not accept blood transfusions of whole blood, they may accept some blood plasma fractions at their own discretion.[302][303][304] The Watch Tower Society provides pre-formatted durable power of attorney documents prohibiting major blood components, in which members can specify which allowable fractions and treatments they will personally accept.[305][306] Jehovah's Witnesses have established Hospital Liaison Committees as a cooperative arrangement between individual Jehovah's Witnesses and medical professionals and hospitals.[307][308]

Demographics


Jehovah's Witnesses have an active presence in most countries, but do not form a large part of the population of any country.

For 2018, Jehovah's Witnesses reported approximately 8.58 million publishers—the term they use for members actively involved in preaching—in about 120,000 congregations.[9] For the same year, they reported over 2 billion hours spent in preaching activity, and conducted Bible studies with more than 10 million individuals (including those conducted by Witness parents with their children[309][310]).[9] Jehovah's Witnesses estimate their worldwide annual growth since 2016 to be 1.4%.[9]

The official published membership statistics, such as those mentioned above, include only those who submit reports for their personal ministry;[311] official statistics do not include inactive and disfellowshipped individuals or others who might attend their meetings. As a result, only about half of those who self-identified as Jehovah's Witnesses in independent demographic studies are considered active by the faith itself.[312][313] The 2008 US Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life survey found a low retention rate among members of the denomination: about 37% of people raised in the group continued to identify themselves as Jehovah's Witnesses;[314][315] the next lowest retention rates were for Buddhism at 50% and Catholicism at 68%. The study also found that 65% of adult Jehovah's Witnesses in the US are converts.[316]

Sociological analysis


Sociologist James A. Beckford, in his 1975 study of Jehovah's Witnesses, classified the group's organizational structure as Totalizing, characterized by an assertive leadership, specific and narrow objectives, control over competing demands on members' time and energy, and control over the quality of new members. Other characteristics of the classification include likelihood of friction with secular authorities, reluctance to co-operate with other religious organizations, a high rate of membership turnover, a low rate of doctrinal change, and strict uniformity of beliefs among members.[317] Beckford identified the group's chief characteristics as historicism (identifying historical events as relating to the outworking of God's purpose), absolutism (conviction that Jehovah's Witness leaders dispense absolute truth), activism (capacity to motivate members to perform missionary tasks), rationalism (conviction that Witness doctrines have a rational basis devoid of mystery), authoritarianism (rigid presentation of regulations without the opportunity for criticism) and world indifference (rejection of certain secular requirements and medical treatments).[318]

Sociologist Bryan R. Wilson, in his consideration of five religious groups including Jehovah's Witnesses, noted that each of the denominations:[278]

A sociological comparative study by the Pew Research Center found that Jehovah's Witnesses in the United States ranked highest in statistics for getting no further than high school graduation, belief in God, importance of religion in one's life, frequency of religious attendance, frequency of prayers, frequency of Bible reading outside of religious services, belief their prayers are answered, belief that their religion can only be interpreted one way, belief that theirs is the only one true faith leading to eternal life, opposition to abortion, and opposition to homosexuality. In the study, Jehovah's Witnesses ranked lowest in statistics for having an interest in politics.[320][321] It was also among the most ethnically diverse religious groups in the US.[316]

Opposition


Controversy surrounding various beliefs, doctrines and practices of Jehovah's Witnesses has led to opposition from governments, communities, and religious groups.

Political and religious animosity against Jehovah's Witnesses has at times led to mob action and government oppression in various countries. Their stance regarding political neutrality and their refusal to serve in the military has led to imprisonment of members who refused conscription during World War II and at other times where national service has been compulsory. Their religious activities are currently banned or restricted in some countries, including China, Vietnam and some Islamic states.[323][324]

  • In 1933, there were approximately 20,000 Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany,[325] of whom about 10,000 were imprisoned. Of those, 2,000 were sent to Nazi concentration camps, where they were identified by purple triangles; as many as 1,200 died, including 250 who were executed.[87]Between%20Resistance%20and%20Mart]] [328][103]
  • In Canada during World War II, Jehovah's Witnesses were interned in camps[330] along with political dissidents and people of Chinese and Japanese descent.[331] Jehovah's Witnesses faced discrimination in Quebec until the Quiet Revolution, including bans on distributing literature or holding meetings.[332][333]
  • In 1951, about 9,300 Jehovah's Witnesses in the Soviet Union were deported to Siberia as part of Operation North in April 1951.[334]
  • In April 2017, the Supreme Court of Russia labeled Jehovah's Witnesses an extremist organization, banned its activities in Russia and issued an order to confiscate the organization's assets.[335]

Authors including William Whalen, Shawn Francis Peters and former Witnesses Barbara Grizzuti Harrison, Alan Rogerson and William Schnell have claimed the arrests and mob violence in the United States in the 1930s and 1940s were the consequence of what appeared to be a deliberate course of provocation of authorities and other religious groups by Jehovah's Witnesses. Whalen, Harrison and Schnell have suggested Rutherford invited and cultivated opposition for publicity purposes in a bid to attract dispossessed members of society, and to convince members that persecution from the outside world was evidence of the truth of their struggle to serve God.[336]Judging%20Jehovah's%20W]]%2C%20197]][339]30%20Years%20a%20Watchtower%20Sl]] [341]

Several cases involving Jehovah's Witnesses have been heard by Supreme Courts throughout the world.[34] The cases generally relate to their right to practice their religion, displays of patriotism and military service, and blood transfusions.[343]

In the United States, legal challenges by Jehovah's Witnesses prompted a series of state and federal court rulings that reinforced judicial protections for civil liberties.[344] Among the rights strengthened by Witness court victories in the United States are the protection of religious conduct from federal and state interference, the right to abstain from patriotic rituals and military service, the right of patients to refuse medical treatment, and the right to engage in public discourse.[345] Similar cases in their favor have been heard in Canada.[346]

Criticism and controversy


Jehovah's Witnesses have received criticism from mainstream Christianity, members of the medical community, former members and commentators regarding their beliefs and practices. The movement has been accused of doctrinal inconsistency and reversals, failed predictions, mistranslation of the Bible, harsh treatment of former members and autocratic and coercive leadership. Criticism has also focused on their rejection of blood transfusions, particularly in life-threatening medical situations, and failing to report cases of sexual abuse to the authorities. Many of the claims are denied by Jehovah's Witnesses and some have also been disputed by courts and religious scholars.

Doctrines of Jehovah's Witnesses are established by the Governing Body.[347][348] The denomination does not tolerate dissent over doctrines and practices;[162][112][350][351] members who openly disagree with the group's teachings are expelled and shunned.[257] Witness publications strongly discourage followers from questioning doctrine and counsel received from the Governing Body, reasoning that it is to be trusted as part of "God's organization".[351][352][353][354] It also warns members to "avoid independent thinking", claiming such thinking "was introduced by Satan the Devil"[352][356] and would "cause division".[357] Those who openly disagree with official teachings are condemned as "apostates" who are "mentally diseased".[262][358][359]

Former members Heather and Gary Botting compare the cultural paradigms of the denomination to George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-four,[360]%2C%20Toro]][361][168][362]The%20habit%20of%20questioning%20or%20quali]]ate all responsibility and rights over their personal lives.[361]Millions%20Now%20Living%20Will%20Never%20Die]]ritics also accuse the group's leaders of exercising "intellectual dominance" over Witnesses,%2C%20Welch%20P]]ontrolling information[257][366]Raymond Franz mind control[368]

Jehovah's Witness publications state that consensus of faith aids unity, and deny that unity restricts individuality or imagination.[369] Historian James Irvin Lichti has rejected the description of the denomination as "totalitarian".[370]

Sociologist Rodney Stark states that Jehovah's Witness leaders are "not always very democratic" and that members "are expected to conform to rather strict standards," but adds that "enforcement tends to be very informal, sustained by the close bonds of friendship within the group", and that Jehovah's Witnesses see themselves as "part of the power structure rather than subject to it."[101] Sociologist Andrew Holden states that most members who join millenarian movements such as Jehovah's Witnesses have made an informed choice.[371] However, he also states that defectors "are seldom allowed a dignified exit",[262] and describes the administration as autocratic.[347]

Various Bible scholars, including Bruce M. Metzger[372] and MacLean Gilmour,[373] have said that while scholarship is evident in New World Translation, its rendering of certain texts are inaccurate and biased in favor of Witness practices and doctrines.[374][375][376][377][378] Critics of the group such as Edmund C. Gruss,[379] and Christian writers such as Ray C. Stedman,[380] Walter Martin, Norman Klann[381] and Anthony Hoekema[382] state that the New World Translation exhibits scholastic dishonesty. Most criticism of the New World Translation relates to its rendering of the New Testament, particularly regarding the introduction of the name Jehovah and in passages related to the Trinity doctrine.[383][384]

Watch Tower Society publications have claimed that God has used Jehovah's Witnesses (and formerly, the International Bible Students) to declare his will[385][386] and has provided advance knowledge about Armageddon and the establishment of God's kingdom.[5][388][389] Some publications also claimed that God has used Jehovah's Witnesses and the International Bible Students as a modern-day prophet.[5] George D. Chryssides stated, "while prediction may be part of a biblical prophet's role, the root meaning of prophecy is that of proclaiming God's word." He went on to say that, "Jehovah's Witnesses... are the recipients of prophecy, who regard themselves as invested with the interpretation of biblical writings."[390]Jehovah's%20Witnesses%20Co]]%20Chr]]th these interpretations, Jehovah's Witnesses' publications have made various predictions about world events they believe were prophesied in the Bible.[391][69][394][168]

The Watch Tower Society rejects accusations that it is a false prophet,[396] stating that its interpretations are not inspired or infallible,[397][398][399] and that it has not claimed its predictions were "the words of Jehovah."[396] Chryssides has suggested that with the exception of statements about 1914, 1925 and 1975, the changing views and dates of the Jehovah's Witnesses are largely attributable to changed understandings of biblical chronology rather than to failed predictions.[93] Chryssides further states, "it is therefore simplistic and naïve to view the Witnesses as a group that continues to set a single end-date that fails and then devise a new one, as many counter-cultists do."[400] However, sociologist Andrew Holden states that since the foundation of the movement around 140 years ago, "Witnesses have maintained that we are living on the precipice of the end of time."[401]

Jehovah's Witnesses have been accused of having policies and culture that help to conceal cases of sexual abuse within the organization.[402] The group has been criticized for its "two witness rule" for church discipline, based on its application of scriptures at Deuteronomy 19:15 and Matthew 18:15–17, which requires sexual abuse to be substantiated by secondary evidence if the accused person denies any wrongdoing.[403][404][405] In cases where corroboration is lacking, the Watch Tower Society's instruction is that "the elders will leave the matter in Jehovah's hands".[406] A former member of the headquarters staff, Barbara Anderson, says the policy effectively requires that there be another witness to an act of molestation, "which is an impossibility". Anderson says the policies "protect pedophiles rather than protect the children."[407] Jehovah's Witnesses maintain that they have a strong policy to protect children, adding that the best way to protect children is by educating parents; they also state that they do not sponsor activities that separate children from parents.[408][403][409][410]

The group's failure to report abuse allegations to authorities has also been criticized.[411] The Watch Tower Society's policy is that elders inform authorities when required by law to do so, but otherwise leave that action up to the victim and his or her family.[403][404][406] The Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse found that of 1,006 alleged perpetrators of child sexual abuse investigated by Jehovah's Witness elders since 1950, "not one was reported by the church to secular authorities."[348] The Royal Commission also found that the Watch Tower Society legal department routinely provided incorrect information to elders based on an incorrect understanding about what constitutes a legal obligation to report crimes in Australia.[414][415] William Bowen, a former Jehovah's Witness elder who established the Silentlambs organization to assist sex abuse victims within the denomination, has claimed Witness leaders discourage followers from reporting incidents of sexual misconduct to authorities, and other critics claim the organization is reluctant to alert authorities in order to protect its "crime-free" reputation.[402][416] In court cases in the United Kingdom and the United States the Watch Tower Society has been found to have been negligent in its failure to protect children from known sex offenders within the congregation,[417][418][419] and the Society has settled other child abuse lawsuits out of court, reportedly paying as much as $780,000 to one plaintiff without admitting wrongdoing.[407]

In 2017, the Charity Commission for England and Wales began an inquiry into Jehovah's Witnesses' handling of allegations of child sexual abuse in the United Kingdom.[420][421]

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