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The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) is an independent, international cooperative of national research institutions and governmental research agencies. It conducts large-scale comparative studies of educational achievement and other aspects of education, with the aim of gaining in-depth understanding of the effects of policies and practices within and across systems of education.[1]

Since its founding in 1958, IEA has conducted more than 30 research studies of cross-national achievement. IEA studies focus on subjects relating to mathematics, science, reading, civic and citizenship education, computer and information literacy, and teacher education, among others.

History


Even though the IEA became a legal entity in 1967, its origins date back to 1958 when a group of scholars, educational psychologists, sociologists, and psychometricians met at the UNESCO Institute for Education in Hamburg, Germany, to discuss problems of school and student evaluation. They believed that effective evaluation requires examination of both educational inputs as well as its outcomes (such as knowledge, attitudes, and participation). The founders assumed that if research could obtain evidence from across a wide range of systems, the variability would be sufficient to reveal important relationships within different school systems. They strongly rejected data-free assertions about the relative merits of various education systems, and aimed to identify factors that would have meaningful and consistent influences on educational outcomes.[2]

Mission


The IEA, together with the association's membership, carries out comparative research studies in education and aims to:

Location


IEA Amsterdam

The IEA headquarters is located in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

IEA Amsterdam [18] carries out a wide range of duties related to IEA memberships, studies, finance, publications, and communication. These responsibilities include:

  • maintaining relationships with member institutions, partners, and external funding and research agencies
  • overseeing IEA projects and managing translation verification of the survey instruments and quality control of the data collection
  • financial planning and reporting
  • organizing international conferences and General Assembly meetings
  • managing IEA's publications and communications.

Staff in Amsterdam also disseminate study reports and information about the work of the association to the IEA members and the general public.

IEA Hamburg

The IEA's data processing and research department is located in Hamburg, Germany.

IEA Hamburg [19] is responsible for activities in several major areas, including:

  • data management for IEA studies and for other international and national studies
  • study preparation, organization, implementation, and coordination
  • providing data analysis and reporting support services for IEA member states
  • delivering training workshops and seminars on analysis methods and use of educational research data
  • additional services commissioned by both national and international scientific institution

IEA Hamburg also provides scanner-assisted data collection, electronic scoring, and data interpretation services.

Studies


Since its founding in 1958, IEA has conducted more than 30 research studies of cross-national achievement. IEA studies focus on subjects of particular interest to IEA members. These include mathematics and science studies, reading studies, civic and citizenship education, computer and information literacy, and teacher education, among others. A regular cycle of studies in basic school subjects includes:

  • the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS 1995, TIMSS 1999, TIMSS 2003, TIMSS 2007, TIMSS 2011, TIMSS 2015, TIMSS 2019, eTIMSS 2019)
  • the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS 2001, PIRLS 2006, PIRLS 2011, PIRLS 2016, ePIRLS 2016, PIRLS 2021).
  • the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study [20] (CIVED, ICCS 2009, ICCS 2016),
  • the Computer and Information Technology in Education Studies [21] (COMPED, SITES-M1, SITES-M2, SITES 2006),
  • the Early Childhood Education Study [22] (PPP, ECES).
  • the International Computer and Information Literacy Study [23] (ICILS 2013, ICILS 2018).

In 2005, IEA also initiated its first study in tertiary education:

  • Teachers Education and Development Study in Mathematics [24] (TEDS-M).

IEA repeats assessments in specific subjects on regular (e.g., PIRLS and TIMSS) and irregular (e.g., ICCS, ICILS) intervals. The cycle of studies enables countries to monitor changes in education and educational achievement over time. IEA studies consider the processes and effects of education, using the notion of 'opportunity to learn' in order to understand the linkages between:

  • Intended curriculum (what policy requires)
  • Implemented curriculum (what is taught in schools)
  • Achieved curriculum (what students learn).

To investigate these relations, IEA collects student achievement data, as well as background information from school principals, teachers, students (in some studies, also from parents), and policymakers about the contexts of teaching and learning.

The IEA also designed the Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (LaNA) [25] to provide educators with valuable experience in standardized assessment, implementation of the assessment procedures, and capacity building in planning and administering assessments, and reporting outcomes. A short basic assessment at the end of primary school, LaNA is intended for developing education systems where the IEA’s Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study and Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (TIMSS and PIRLS) may be too difficult to implement.

The IEA currently has more than 65 institutional members around the world, most which represent one national system of education, although a few countries have representation for more than one education system.[3]

Institutional Members include:

Africa

  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Flag_of_Botswana.svg/23px-Flag_of_Botswana.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Flag_of_Botswana.svg/35px-Flag_of_Botswana.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Flag_of_Botswana.svg/45px-Flag_of_Botswana.svg.png 2x|Botswana|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]] Botswana
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/af/Flag_of_South_Africa.svg/23px-Flag_of_South_Africa.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/af/Flag_of_South_Africa.svg/35px-Flag_of_South_Africa.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/af/Flag_of_South_Africa.svg/45px-Flag_of_South_Africa.svg.png 2x|South Africa|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]] South Africa

Asia

  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/Flag_of_Armenia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Armenia.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/Flag_of_Armenia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Armenia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/Flag_of_Armenia.svg/46px-Flag_of_Armenia.svg.png 2x|Armenia|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Armenia
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg/45px-Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg.png 2x|China|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]China, People's Republic of
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China.svg/45px-Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China.svg.png 2x|Taiwan|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Chinese Taipei (Taiwan R.O.C.)
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/Flag_of_Georgia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Georgia.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/Flag_of_Georgia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Georgia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/Flag_of_Georgia.svg/45px-Flag_of_Georgia.svg.png 2x|Georgia (country)|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Georgia
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5b/Flag_of_Hong_Kong.svg/23px-Flag_of_Hong_Kong.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5b/Flag_of_Hong_Kong.svg/35px-Flag_of_Hong_Kong.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5b/Flag_of_Hong_Kong.svg/45px-Flag_of_Hong_Kong.svg.png 2x|Hong Kong|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Hong Kong SAR
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Indonesia.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Indonesia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.svg/45px-Flag_of_Indonesia.svg.png 2x|Indonesia|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Indonesia
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan.svg/23px-Flag_of_Japan.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan.svg/35px-Flag_of_Japan.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan.svg/45px-Flag_of_Japan.svg.png 2x|Japan|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Japan
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/Flag_of_Kazakhstan.svg/23px-Flag_of_Kazakhstan.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/Flag_of_Kazakhstan.svg/35px-Flag_of_Kazakhstan.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/Flag_of_Kazakhstan.svg/46px-Flag_of_Kazakhstan.svg.png 2x|Kazakhstan|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Kazakhstan
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f4/Flag_of_Korea_%281899%29.svg/23px-Flag_of_Korea_%281899%29.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f4/Flag_of_Korea_%281899%29.svg/35px-Flag_of_Korea_%281899%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f4/Flag_of_Korea_%281899%29.svg/45px-Flag_of_Korea_%281899%29.svg.png 2x|Korea|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Korea, Republic of
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/46px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png 2x|Malaysia|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Malaysia
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg/46px-Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg.png 2x|Philippines|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Philippines
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/23px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/35px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/45px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png 2x|Singapore|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Singapore
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Flag_of_Thailand.svg/23px-Flag_of_Thailand.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Flag_of_Thailand.svg/35px-Flag_of_Thailand.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Flag_of_Thailand.svg/45px-Flag_of_Thailand.svg.png 2x|Thailand|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Thailand

Australasia

  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg/23px-Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg/35px-Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg/46px-Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg.png 2x|Australia|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Australia
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg/23px-Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg/35px-Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg/46px-Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg.png 2x|New Zealand|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]New Zealand

Europe

  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Flag_of_Austria.svg/23px-Flag_of_Austria.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Flag_of_Austria.svg/35px-Flag_of_Austria.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Flag_of_Austria.svg/45px-Flag_of_Austria.svg.png 2x|Austria|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Austria
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg/23px-Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg/35px-Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg/45px-Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg.png 2x|Belgium|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Belgium (Flemish)
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg/23px-Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg/35px-Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg/45px-Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg.png 2x|Belgium|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Belgium (French)
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9a/Flag_of_Bulgaria.svg/23px-Flag_of_Bulgaria.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9a/Flag_of_Bulgaria.svg/35px-Flag_of_Bulgaria.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9a/Flag_of_Bulgaria.svg/46px-Flag_of_Bulgaria.svg.png 2x|Bulgaria|h14|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Bulgaria
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Flag_of_Croatia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Croatia.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Flag_of_Croatia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Croatia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Flag_of_Croatia.svg/46px-Flag_of_Croatia.svg.png 2x|Croatia|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Croatia
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Flag_of_Cyprus.svg/23px-Flag_of_Cyprus.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Flag_of_Cyprus.svg/35px-Flag_of_Cyprus.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Flag_of_Cyprus.svg/45px-Flag_of_Cyprus.svg.png 2x|Cyprus|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Cyprus
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.svg/45px-Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.svg.png 2x|Czech Republic|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Czech Republic
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Flag_of_Denmark.svg/20px-Flag_of_Denmark.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Flag_of_Denmark.svg/31px-Flag_of_Denmark.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Flag_of_Denmark.svg/40px-Flag_of_Denmark.svg.png 2x|Denmark|h15|w20|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Denmark
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/be/Flag_of_England.svg/23px-Flag_of_England.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/be/Flag_of_England.svg/35px-Flag_of_England.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/be/Flag_of_England.svg/46px-Flag_of_England.svg.png 2x|England|h14|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]England
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/Flag_of_Estonia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Estonia.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/Flag_of_Estonia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Estonia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/Flag_of_Estonia.svg/46px-Flag_of_Estonia.svg.png 2x|Estonia|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Estonia
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bc/Flag_of_Finland.svg/23px-Flag_of_Finland.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bc/Flag_of_Finland.svg/35px-Flag_of_Finland.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bc/Flag_of_Finland.svg/46px-Flag_of_Finland.svg.png 2x|Finland|h14|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Finland
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/c/c3/Flag_of_France.svg/23px-Flag_of_France.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/c/c3/Flag_of_France.svg/35px-Flag_of_France.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/c/c3/Flag_of_France.svg/45px-Flag_of_France.svg.png 2x|France|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]France
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/ba/Flag_of_Germany.svg/23px-Flag_of_Germany.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/ba/Flag_of_Germany.svg/35px-Flag_of_Germany.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/ba/Flag_of_Germany.svg/46px-Flag_of_Germany.svg.png 2x|Germany|h14|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Germany
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5c/Flag_of_Greece.svg/23px-Flag_of_Greece.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5c/Flag_of_Greece.svg/35px-Flag_of_Greece.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5c/Flag_of_Greece.svg/45px-Flag_of_Greece.svg.png 2x|Greece|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Greece
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c1/Flag_of_Hungary.svg/23px-Flag_of_Hungary.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c1/Flag_of_Hungary.svg/35px-Flag_of_Hungary.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c1/Flag_of_Hungary.svg/46px-Flag_of_Hungary.svg.png 2x|Hungary|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Hungary
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/45/Flag_of_Ireland.svg/23px-Flag_of_Ireland.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/45/Flag_of_Ireland.svg/35px-Flag_of_Ireland.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/45/Flag_of_Ireland.svg/46px-Flag_of_Ireland.svg.png 2x|Republic of Ireland|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Ireland
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/03/Flag_of_Italy.svg/23px-Flag_of_Italy.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/03/Flag_of_Italy.svg/35px-Flag_of_Italy.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/03/Flag_of_Italy.svg/45px-Flag_of_Italy.svg.png 2x|Italy|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Italy
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/84/Flag_of_Latvia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Latvia.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/84/Flag_of_Latvia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Latvia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/84/Flag_of_Latvia.svg/46px-Flag_of_Latvia.svg.png 2x|Latvia|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Latvia
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/11/Flag_of_Lithuania.svg/23px-Flag_of_Lithuania.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/11/Flag_of_Lithuania.svg/35px-Flag_of_Lithuania.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/11/Flag_of_Lithuania.svg/46px-Flag_of_Lithuania.svg.png 2x|Lithuania|h14|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Lithuania
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/da/Flag_of_Luxembourg.svg/23px-Flag_of_Luxembourg.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/da/Flag_of_Luxembourg.svg/35px-Flag_of_Luxembourg.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/da/Flag_of_Luxembourg.svg/46px-Flag_of_Luxembourg.svg.png 2x|Luxembourg|h14|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Luxembourg
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg/45px-Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg.png 2x|Netherlands|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Netherlands
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/79/Flag_of_North_Macedonia.svg/23px-Flag_of_North_Macedonia.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/79/Flag_of_North_Macedonia.svg/35px-Flag_of_North_Macedonia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/79/Flag_of_North_Macedonia.svg/46px-Flag_of_North_Macedonia.svg.png 2x|North Macedonia|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]North Macedonia
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d9/Flag_of_Norway.svg/21px-Flag_of_Norway.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d9/Flag_of_Norway.svg/32px-Flag_of_Norway.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d9/Flag_of_Norway.svg/41px-Flag_of_Norway.svg.png 2x|Norway|h15|w21|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Norway
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/12/Flag_of_Poland.svg/23px-Flag_of_Poland.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/12/Flag_of_Poland.svg/35px-Flag_of_Poland.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/12/Flag_of_Poland.svg/46px-Flag_of_Poland.svg.png 2x|Poland|h14|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Poland
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5c/Flag_of_Portugal.svg/23px-Flag_of_Portugal.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5c/Flag_of_Portugal.svg/35px-Flag_of_Portugal.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5c/Flag_of_Portugal.svg/45px-Flag_of_Portugal.svg.png 2x|Portugal|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Portugal
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/Flag_of_Romania.svg/23px-Flag_of_Romania.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/Flag_of_Romania.svg/35px-Flag_of_Romania.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/Flag_of_Romania.svg/45px-Flag_of_Romania.svg.png 2x|Romania|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Romania
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/f3/Flag_of_Russia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Russia.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/f3/Flag_of_Russia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Russia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/f3/Flag_of_Russia.svg/45px-Flag_of_Russia.svg.png 2x|Russia|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Russian Federation
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Flag_of_Slovakia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Slovakia.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Flag_of_Slovakia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Slovakia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Flag_of_Slovakia.svg/45px-Flag_of_Slovakia.svg.png 2x|Slovakia|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Slovak Republic
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f0/Flag_of_Slovenia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Slovenia.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f0/Flag_of_Slovenia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Slovenia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f0/Flag_of_Slovenia.svg/46px-Flag_of_Slovenia.svg.png 2x|Slovenia|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Slovenia
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9a/Flag_of_Spain.svg/23px-Flag_of_Spain.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9a/Flag_of_Spain.svg/35px-Flag_of_Spain.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9a/Flag_of_Spain.svg/45px-Flag_of_Spain.svg.png 2x|Spain|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Spain
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4c/Flag_of_Sweden.svg/23px-Flag_of_Sweden.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4c/Flag_of_Sweden.svg/35px-Flag_of_Sweden.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4c/Flag_of_Sweden.svg/46px-Flag_of_Sweden.svg.png 2x|Sweden|h14|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Sweden
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/Flag_of_Turkey.svg/23px-Flag_of_Turkey.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/Flag_of_Turkey.svg/35px-Flag_of_Turkey.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/Flag_of_Turkey.svg/45px-Flag_of_Turkey.svg.png 2x|Turkey|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Turkey

North Africa and Middle East

  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Flag_of_Egypt.svg/23px-Flag_of_Egypt.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Flag_of_Egypt.svg/35px-Flag_of_Egypt.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Flag_of_Egypt.svg/45px-Flag_of_Egypt.svg.png 2x|Egypt|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Egypt
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/Flag_of_Iran.svg/23px-Flag_of_Iran.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/Flag_of_Iran.svg/35px-Flag_of_Iran.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/Flag_of_Iran.svg/46px-Flag_of_Iran.svg.png 2x|Iran|h13|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Iran
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Flag_of_Israel.svg/21px-Flag_of_Israel.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Flag_of_Israel.svg/32px-Flag_of_Israel.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Flag_of_Israel.svg/41px-Flag_of_Israel.svg.png 2x|Israel|h15|w21|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Israel
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/Flag_of_Jordan.svg/23px-Flag_of_Jordan.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/Flag_of_Jordan.svg/35px-Flag_of_Jordan.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/Flag_of_Jordan.svg/46px-Flag_of_Jordan.svg.png 2x|Jordan|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Jordan
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Flag_of_Kuwait.svg/23px-Flag_of_Kuwait.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Flag_of_Kuwait.svg/35px-Flag_of_Kuwait.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Flag_of_Kuwait.svg/46px-Flag_of_Kuwait.svg.png 2x|Kuwait|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Kuwait
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Flag_of_Morocco.svg/23px-Flag_of_Morocco.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Flag_of_Morocco.svg/35px-Flag_of_Morocco.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Flag_of_Morocco.svg/45px-Flag_of_Morocco.svg.png 2x|Morocco|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Morocco
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Flag_of_Oman.svg/23px-Flag_of_Oman.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Flag_of_Oman.svg/35px-Flag_of_Oman.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Flag_of_Oman.svg/46px-Flag_of_Oman.svg.png 2x|Oman|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Oman
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/00/Flag_of_Palestine.svg/23px-Flag_of_Palestine.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/00/Flag_of_Palestine.svg/35px-Flag_of_Palestine.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/00/Flag_of_Palestine.svg/46px-Flag_of_Palestine.svg.png 2x|State of Palestine|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Palestine
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Flag_of_Qatar.svg/23px-Flag_of_Qatar.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Flag_of_Qatar.svg/35px-Flag_of_Qatar.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Flag_of_Qatar.svg/46px-Flag_of_Qatar.svg.png 2x|Qatar|h9|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Qatar
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates.svg/46px-Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates.svg.png 2x|United Arab Emirates|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]United Arab Emirates

The Americas

  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg/22px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg/33px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg/43px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.png 2x|Brazil|h15|w22|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Brazil
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d9/Flag_of_Canada_%28Pantone%29.svg/23px-Flag_of_Canada_%28Pantone%29.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d9/Flag_of_Canada_%28Pantone%29.svg/35px-Flag_of_Canada_%28Pantone%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d9/Flag_of_Canada_%28Pantone%29.svg/46px-Flag_of_Canada_%28Pantone%29.svg.png 2x|Canada|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Canada
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/Flag_of_Chile.svg/23px-Flag_of_Chile.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/Flag_of_Chile.svg/35px-Flag_of_Chile.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/Flag_of_Chile.svg/45px-Flag_of_Chile.svg.png 2x|Chile|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Chile
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Flag_of_Colombia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Colombia.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Flag_of_Colombia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Colombia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Flag_of_Colombia.svg/45px-Flag_of_Colombia.svg.png 2x|Colombia|h15|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Colombia
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fc/Flag_of_Mexico.svg/23px-Flag_of_Mexico.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fc/Flag_of_Mexico.svg/35px-Flag_of_Mexico.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fc/Flag_of_Mexico.svg/46px-Flag_of_Mexico.svg.png 2x|Mexico|h13|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]Mexico
  • [[INLINE_IMAGE|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/a4/Flag_of_the_United_States.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_United_States.svg.png|//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/a4/Flag_of_the_United_States.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_United_States.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/a4/Flag_of_the_United_States.svg/46px-Flag_of_the_United_States.svg.png 2x|United States|h12|w23|thumbborder flagicon-img flagicon-img]]United States
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