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The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) is a two-year educational programme primarily aimed at 16 to 19 year olds. The programme provides an internationally accepted qualification for entry into higher education and is recognized by many universities worldwide. It was developed in the early to mid-1960s in Geneva, Switzerland, by a group of international educators. After a six-year pilot programme that ended in 1975, a bilingual diploma was established.

Administered by the International Baccalaureate (IB), the IBDP is taught in schools in over 140 countries, in one of three languages: English, French, or Spanish. In order to participate, students must attend an IB school. IBDP students complete assessments in six subjects, one from each subject group, and three core requirements. Students are evaluated using both internal and external assessments, and courses finish with an externally assessed series of examinations, usually consisting of two or three timed written tests. Internal assessment varies by subject: there may be oral presentations, practical work, or written work. In most cases, these are initially graded by the classroom teacher, whose grades are then verified or modified, as necessary, by an appointed external moderator.

Generally, the IBDP has been well received. It has been commended for introducing interdisciplinary thinking to students. In the United Kingdom, The Guardian newspaper claims that the IBDP is "more academically challenging and broader than three or four A-levels".[1] A pledge to allow children in all areas to participate in the programme, however, was shelved amid concerns that a "two-tier" education system was emerging, because the growth in IB was driven by private schools and sixth form colleges. British students who take the IB with its six subjects, Extended Essay (EE), Theory of Knowledge (TOK), and Creativity, Action and Service (CAS) receive differently structured university offers to those who sit three A-levels, with universities working to carefully construct appropriate equivalent offer conditions.[2]

History and background


In 1945 the "Conference of Internationally-minded Schools" asked the International School of Geneva (Ecolint) to create an international schools programme.[3][4] When he became director of Ecolint's English division, Desmond Cole-Baker began to develop the idea, and in 1962, his colleague Robert Leach organised a conference in Geneva, at which the term "International Baccalaureate" was first mentioned.[3][5] An American social studies teacher, Leach organized the conference—with a $2500 grant from UNESCO—which was attended by observers from European schools and UNESCO. Writing about the genesis of the International Baccalaureate in Schools Across Frontiers, Alec Peterson credits Leach as "the original promoter of the International Baccalaureate."[6] At the end of the conference, Unesco funded the International School Association with an additional $10,000, which was inadequate to do more than produce a few papers, or bring teachers together for meetings.[7]

By 1964, international educators such as Alec Peterson (director of the Department of Education at Oxford University), Harlan Hanson (director of the College Board Advanced Placement Program), Desmond Cole (director of United Nations International School in New York) and Desmond Cole-Baker (head of the International School of Geneva) founded the International Schools Examination Syndicate (ISES).[8][9] Cole and Hanson brought experience with college entrance examinations in the United States, and Hanson, in particular, brought his experience from a long relationship with the College Board.[9] According to Peterson, "the breakthrough in the history of the IB" came in 1965 with a grant from the Twentieth Century Fund, which commissioned Martin Mayer, author of The Schools, to produce a report on the feasibility of establishing a common curriculum and examination for international schools that would be acceptable for entry to universities worldwide.[7] This led to conferences involving Ecolint, United World College of the Atlantic (UWC Atlantic College), and others in the spring and fall of 1965, at which details about the curriculum for the Diploma Programme were discussed and agreed upon.[7]

The Ford Foundation grant, secured in 1966, funded Peterson's study at Oxford University, which focused on three issues: a comparative analysis of "secondary educational programmes in European countries...in cooperation with the Council of Europe"; university expectations for secondary students intending to enter university; and a "statistical comparison of IB pilot examination results with...national school leaving examinations such as British A Levels and US College Board (AP) Tests".[7][8] As a result of the study and the curriculum model developed at UWC Atlantic College, Peterson initiated the pattern of combining "general education with specialization", which melded with the curricula of the United States and Canada, and became the "curriculum framework" proposed at the UNESCO conference in Geneva in 1967.[8] Late in 1967, ISES was restructured and renamed the IB Council of Foundation, and John Goormaghtigh became the first president in January 1968.[7] In 1967, the group, which by then also included Ralph Tyler, identified eight schools to be used for the experimentation of the curriculum.[10]

In 1968, the IB headquarters were officially established in Geneva for the development and maintenance of the IBDP. Alec Peterson became IBO's first director general, and in 1968, twelve schools in twelve countries participated in the IBDP, including UWC Atlantic College and UNIS of New York.[7][8][11] The aim was to "provide an internationally acceptable university admissions qualification suitable for the growing mobile population of young people whose parents were part of the world of diplomacy, international and multi-national organizations."[12]

The first six years of the IB Diploma Programme, with a limited number of students, are referred to as the "experimental period".[13] Each school was to be inspected by ISES or IBO and had to be approved by their government.[14] The experimental period ended in 1975, and in that year, the International Baccalaureate North America (IBNA) was established as a separate entity, allowing the funding for implementation of the IBDP to remain in the country rather than being sent to Geneva.[15] The first official guide to the programme containing its syllabus and official assessment information was published in 1970 and included the theory of knowledge course. The extended essay was introduced in 1978, but creativity, action, service (CAS), although mentioned in guides beforehand, was not specifically identified in the guide until 1989.[7][16]

In 1980, responding to criticism that the "internationalism" was Eurocentric, the IB hosted a seminar in Singapore with the goal of incorporating Asian culture and education into the IB curriculum. In 1982, the Standing Conference of Heads of IB Schools took steps to modify the Eurocentrism in the curriculum. The same year, the Japanese government hosted a science conference for IBO "as a token of Japanese interest in the various dimensions of the IB".[8]

From the start, all subjects of the IB Diploma Programme were available in English and French, and it was mandatory for all students to study both a first and a second language.[17] In 1974, bilingual diplomas were introduced that allowed students to take one or more of their humanities or science subjects in a language other than their first. The IB Diploma Programme subjects became available in Spanish in 1983.[17]

Core requirements and subject groups


To be awarded an IB diploma, a candidate must fulfill three core requirements, in addition to passing his or her subject examinations:[18]

  • Extended essay (EE). Candidates must write an independent research essay of up to 4,000 words[19] in a subject from the list of approved EE subjects.[20] The candidate may choose to investigate a topic within a subject they are currently studying, although this is not required.[21] The EE may be written on an interdisciplinary topic.[22]
  • Theory of knowledge (TOK). This course introduces students to theories about the nature and limitations of knowledge (basic epistemology) and provides practice in determining the meaning and validity of knowledge (critical thinking). It is claimed to be a "flagship element" of the Diploma Programme, and is the one course that all diploma candidates are required to take. TOK requires 100 hours of instruction, the completion of an externally assessed essay of 1600 words (from a choice of six titles prescribed by the IB worth 67%), and an internally assessed presentation (worth 33%) on the candidate's chosen topic.[23]
  • Creativity, activity, service (CAS). CAS aims to provide students with opportunities for personal growth, self-reflection, intellectual, physical and creative challenges, and awareness of themselves as responsible members of their communities[24] through participation in social or community work (service), athletics or other physical activities (activity), and creative activities (creativity). The guideline for the minimum amount of CAS activity over the two-year programme is approximately 3–4 hours per week, though "hour counting" is not encouraged. Previously, there was a requirement that 150 CAS hours be completed, but this was abolished in 2010. However, some schools still require these hours.[24]

Students who pursue the IB diploma must take six subjects: one each from Groups 1–5,[20] and either one from Group 6 or a permitted substitute from one of the other groups, as described below.[25] Three or four subjects must be taken at Higher level (HL) and the rest at Standard level (SL).[20] The IB recommends a minimum of 240 hours of instructional time for HL courses and 150 hours for SL courses.[20]

While the IB encourages students to pursue the full IB diploma, the "substantial workload require[s] a great deal of commitment, organization, and initiative". Students may instead choose to register for one or more individual IB subjects, without the core requirements. Such students will not receive the full diploma.[26]

The six IBDP subject groups and course offerings are summarised below. More information about the subject groups and individual courses can be found at the respective subject group articles:

Environmental Systems and Societies SL is an interdisciplinary course designed to meet the diploma requirements for groups 3 and 4, while Literature and Performance SL meets the requirements of Groups 1 and 6.[34]

The IB is developing a pilot online version of the IBDP and currently offers several online courses to IBDP students.[35] Eventually, it expects to offer online courses to any student who wishes to register.[36] Additionally, the IB has developed pilot courses that include World Religions; Sports, Exercise and Health Sciences, Dance, and a transdisciplinary pilot course, Literature and Performance, Global Politics.[34][37][38] These pilot courses have now become part of the mainstream courses.[39][40][41][42][43]

Assessment and awards


All subjects (with the exception of CAS) are evaluated using both internal and external assessors. The externally assessed examinations are given worldwide in May (usually for Northern Hemisphere schools) and in November (usually for Southern Hemisphere schools). Each exam usually consists of two or three papers, generally written on the same or successive weekdays.[44] The different papers may have different forms of questions, or they may focus on different areas of the subject syllabus. For example, in Chemistry SL, paper 1 has multiple choice questions, paper 2 has extended response questions. Paper 3 focuses on the "Option(s)" selected by the teacher and data analysis questions. The grading of all external assessments is done by independent examiners appointed by the IB.[45]

The nature of the internal assessment (IA) varies by subject. There may be oral presentations (used in languages), practical work (in experimental sciences and performing arts), or written work. Internal assessment accounts for 20 to 50 percent of the mark awarded for each subject and is marked by a teacher in the school. A sample of at least five per subject at each level from a school will also be graded by a moderator appointed by the IB, in a process called external moderation of internal assessment. Based on this moderation, the grades of the whole subject from that school will change.[45]

Points are awarded from 1 to 7, with 7 being equal to A, 6 equal to A, and so on. Up to three additional points are awarded depending on the grades achieved in the extended essay and theory of knowledge, so the maximum possible point total in the IBDP is 45.[46] The global pass rate for the IB diploma is approximately 80%.[47] In order to receive an IB diploma, candidates must receive a minimum of 24 points or an average of four (or C) out of a possible seven points for six subjects. Candidates must also receive a minimum of 12 points from their Higher Level subjects and a minimum of 9 points from their Standard Level subjects. Additionally, candidates must complete all of the requirements for the EE, CAS and TOK. Failing conditions that will prevent a student from being awarded a diploma, regardless of points received, are non-completion of CAS, more than three scores of 3 or below, not meeting the specific points required for Higher Level or Standard Level subjects, or plagiarism in addition to scoring higher than a score of 1 in any subject/level.[48]

Candidates who successfully complete all the requirements of the IB Diploma Programme and one or more of the following combinations are eligible to receive a bilingual diploma: two Group 1 subjects (of different languages), a Group 3 or 4 subject taken in a language other than the candidate's Group 1 language, or an Extended Essay in a Group 3 or Group 4 subject written in a language other than the candidate's Group 1 language.[49] IB certificates are issued to indicate completion of diploma courses and exams for non-diploma candidate students.[50]

Where standard assessment conditions could put a student with special educational needs at a disadvantage, special arrangements may be allowed. The Candidates with Special Assessment Needspublication contains information regarding procedures and arrangements for students with special needs.[51]

Application and authorization


To offer the IB Diploma Programme, an institution must go through an application process, and during that period the teachers are trained in the IB. At the end of the application process, IB conducts an authorisation visit.[52] Once a school is authorised to offer the programme, an annual fee ensures ongoing support from the IB, legal authorisation to display the IB logo, and access to the Online Curriculum Centre (OCC) and the IB Information System (IBIS).[52] The OCC provides information, resources, and support for IB teachers and coordinators. IBIS is a database employed by IB coordinators.[53] Other IB fees also include student registration and individual diploma subject examination fees.[52]

University recognition


The IB diploma is accepted in 75 countries at over 2,000 universities, and the IB has a search directory on its website, although it advises students to check recognition policies directly with each university.[54] The IB also maintains a list of universities offering scholarships to IBDP graduates under conditions specified by each institution, including 58 colleges and universities in the United States.[55] The following is an overview of university recognition policies in various countries.

Reception


The IBDP was described as "a rigorous, off-the-shelf curriculum recognized by universities around the world" in the 10 December 2006, edition of Time magazine, in an article titled "How to bring our schools out of the 20th century".[78] It was also featured in the summer 2002 edition of American Educator, where Robert Rothman described it as "a good example of an effective, instructionally sound, exam-based system".[79] Howard Gardner, a professor of educational psychology at Harvard University, said that the IBDP curriculum is "less parochial than most American efforts" and helps students "think critically, synthesize knowledge, reflect on their own thought processes and get their feet wet in interdisciplinary thinking".[80] An admissions officer at Brown University claims the IBDP garners widespread respect.[81]

In the United Kingdom, the IBDP is "regarded as more academically challenging but broader than three or four A-levels", according to an article in the Guardian.[1] In 2006, government ministers provided funding so that "every local authority in England could have at least one centre offering sixth-formers the chance to do the IB".[1] In 2008, Children's Secretary Ed Balls abandoned a "flagship Tony Blair pledge to allow children in all areas to study IB". Fears of a "two-tier" education system further dividing education between the rich and the poor emerged as the growth in IB is driven by private schools and sixth-form colleges.[82]

In the United States, criticism of the IBDP has centered on the vague claim that it is anti-American, according to parents anonymously quoted in The New York Times, who objected to the program's funding from UNESCO in its early years. The base cost is considered to be higher than other programs.[81] In 2012, the school board in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, voted to eliminate all IB programmes in the district because of low participation and high costs.[83]

See also


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