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List of rulers of Tuscany
List of rulers of Tuscany

The rulers of Tuscany have varied over time, sometimes being margraves, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.

Margraves of Tuscany, 812–1197

After this, Tuscany was splintered between the competing republics of Florence, Pisa, Siena, Arezzo, Pistoia and Lucca. Since the 14th century, Florence gained dominance over Pistoia (1306, officially annexed 1530), Arezzo (1384), Pisa (1406), and Siena (1559). Lucca was an independent republic until the Napoleonic period in the 19th century.

Rulers of Florence, 1382–1569

After the Sack of Rome, Florence overthrew the Medicis once more and became a republic until Pope Clement VII signed a peace treaty with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor who then invaded Florence and restored the Medicis.

Medici grand dukes of Tuscany, 1569–1737

Habsburg-Lorraine grand dukes of Tuscany, 1737–1801

Bourbon-Parma kings of Etruria, 1801–1807

Tuscany was annexed by France, 1807–1814. Napoleon's sister Elisa Bonaparte was given the honorary title ofGrand Duchess of Tuscany, but did not actually rule over the region.

Habsburg-Lorraine grand dukes of Tuscany, 1814–1860

Leopoldo II was driven from Tuscany by revolution from 21 February to 12 April 1849, and again on 27 April 1859. He abdicated in favor of his son, Ferdinando IV, on 21 July 1859, but Ferdinando IV was never recognized in Tuscany, and was deposed by the provisional government on 16 August. Tuscany was annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia, on 22 March 1860.

Titular Habsburg-Lorraine claimants, 1860–present

See also

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