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Village
Village

A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are often located in rural areas, the term urban village is also applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are normally permanent, with fixed dwellings; however, transient villages can occur. Further, the dwellings of a village are fairly close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement.

In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, and also for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village when it built a church.[1] In many cultures, towns and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them. The Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in mills and factories; the concentration of people caused many villages to grow into towns and cities. This also enabled specialization of labor and crafts, and development of many trades. The trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.

Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is often small, consisting of perhaps 5 to 30 families.

South Asia


In Afghanistan, the village, or deh (Dari/Pashto: ده)[2] is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala (Dari: قلعه, Pashto: کلي),[3] though smaller than the town, or shār (Dari: شهر, Pashto: ښار).[4] In contrast to the qala, the deh is generally a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.

"The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi[5] at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians (around 833.1 million people) live in 640,867 different villages.[6] The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following.

The majority of Pakistanis live in rural areas. According to the 2017 census about 64% of Pakistanis live in rural areas. Most rural areas in Pakistan tend to be near cities, and are peri-urban areas, This is due to the definition of a rural area in Pakistan being an area that does not come within an urban boundary.[7] Village is called dehaat or gaaon in Urdu. Pakistani village life is marked by kinship and exchange relations.[8]

Central Asia


Auyl (Kazakh: Ауыл) is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan.[9] According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs (7.5 million people) live in 8172 different villages.[10] To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" often used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan.

East Asia


People's Republic of China

In mainland China, villages are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇.

Republic of China (Taiwan)

In the Republic of China (Taiwan), villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities. The village is called a tsuen or cūn (村) under a rural township (鄉) and a li (里) under an urban township (鎮) or a county-controlled city. See also Li (unit).

Japan

South Korea

Southeast Asia


In Brunei, villages are officially the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims.[11] A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung (also spelt as kampong).[11][12] They may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may also comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head (Malay: ketua kampung). Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education which is compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country,[13] a mosque, and a community centre (Malay: balai raya or dewan kemasyarakatan).

In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa (officially kelurahan). A "Desa" (a term that derives from a Sanskrit word meaning "country" that is found in the name "Bangladesh"=banglaand desh/desha) is administered according to traditions and customary law ( adat), while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are generally located in rural areas while kelurahan are generally urban subdivisions. A village head is respectively called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan (subdistrict), in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten (district) or kota

The same general concept applies all over Indonesia.

Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, (sometimes spelling kampong or kompong in the English language) for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country".[14] In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu (village chief), who has the power to hear civil matters in his village (see Courts of Malaysia for more details).

A Malay village typically contains a "masjid" (mosque) or [[LINK|lang_"en|Surau|surau"]], paddy fields and Malay houses on stilts. Malay and Indonesian villagers practice the culture of helping one another as a community, which is better known as "joint bearing of burdens" (gotong royong).[15] They are family-oriented (especially the concept of respecting one's family [particularly the parents and elders]), courtesy and practice belief in God ("Tuhan") as paramount to everything else. It is common to see a cemetery near the mosque. All Muslims in the Malay or Indonesian village want to be prayed for, and to receive Allah's blessings in the afterlife. In Sarawak and East Kalimantan, some villages are called 'long', primarily inhabited by the Orang Ulu.

Malaysian kampung are found in Singapore, but there are few kampung villages remaining, mostly on islands surrounding Singapore, such as Pulau Ubin. In the past, there were many kampung villages in Singapore but development and urbanization have replaced them.

The term "kampung", sometimes spelled "kampong", is one of many Malay words to have entered common usage in Malaysia and Singapore.

In urban areas of the Philippines, the term "village" most commonly refers to private subdivisions, especially gated communities. These villages emerged in the mid-20th century and were initially the domain of elite urban dwellers. Those are common in major cities in the country and their residents have a wide range of income levels.

Such villages may or may not correspond to a barangay (the country's basic unit of government, also glossed as village), or be privately administered. Barangays correspond more to precolonial villages; the chairman (formerly the village datu) now settles administrative, intrapersonal, and political matters or polices the area though with much less authority and respect than in Indonesia or Malaysia.

Village, or "làng", is a basis of Vietnam society. Vietnam's village is the typical symbol of Asian agricultural production. Vietnam's village typically contains: a village gate, "lũy tre" (bamboo hedges), "đình làng" (communal house) where "thành hoàng" (tutelary god) is worshiped, a common well, "đồng lúa" (rice field), "chùa" (temple) and houses of all families in the village. All the people in Vietnam's villages usually have a blood relationship. They are farmers who grow rice and have the same traditional handicraft. Vietnam's villages have an important role in society (Vietnamese saying: "Custom rules the law" -"Phép vua thua lệ làng" [literally: the king's law yields to village customs]). It is common for Vietnamese villagers to prefer to be buried in their village upon death.

Central and Eastern Europe


Selo (Cyrillic: село; Polish: sioło) is a Slavic word meaning "village" in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, North Macedonia, Russia, Serbia, and Ukraine. For example, there are numerous sela (plural of selo) called Novo Selo in Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro and others in Serbia, and North Macedonia. Another Slavic word for a village is ves (Polish: wieś, wioska, Czech: ves, vesnice, Slovak: ves, Slovene: vas, Russian: весь). In Slovenia, the word selo is used for very small villages (fewer than 100 people) and in dialects; the Slovene word vas is used all over Slovenia. In Russia, the word ves is archaic, but remains in idioms and locality names, such as Vesyegonsk.

In Bulgaria, the different types of sela vary from a small selo of 5 to 30 families to one of several thousand people. According to a 2002 census, in that year there were 2,385,000 Bulgarian citizens living in settlements classified as villages.[16] A 2004 Human Settlement Profile on Bulgaria[16] conducted by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs stated that:

It also stated that

In Bulgaria, it is becoming popular to visit villages for the atmosphere, culture, crafts, hospitality of the people and the surrounding nature.

In Russia, as of the 2010 Census, 26.3% of the country's population lives in rural localities;[18] down from 26.7% recorded in the 2002 Census.[18] Multiple types of rural localities exist, but the two most common are derevnya (деревня) and selo (село). Historically, the formal indication of status was religious: a city (gorod, город) had a cathedral, a selo had a church, while a derevnya had neither.

The lowest administrative unit of the Russian Empire, a volost, or its Soviet or modern Russian successor, a selsoviet, was typically headquartered in a selo and embraced a few neighboring villages.

In the 1960s–1970s, the depopulation of the smaller villages was driven by the central planners' drive in order to get the farm workers out of smaller, "prospect-less" hamlets and into the collective or state farms' main villages or even larger towns and city, with more amenities.[19]

Most Russian rural residents are involved in agricultural work, and it is very common for villagers to produce their own food.

The historically Cossack regions of Southern Russia and parts of Ukraine, with their fertile soil and absence of serfdom, had a rather different pattern of settlement from central and northern Russia. While peasants of central Russia lived in a village around the lord's manor, a Cossack family often lived on its own farm, called khutor. A number of such khutors plus a central village made up the administrative unit with a center in a stanitsa (Russian: стани́ца; Ukrainian: станиця, stanytsia). Such stanitsas often with a few thousand residents, were usually larger than a typical selo in central Russia.

The term aul/aal is used to refer mostly Muslim-populated villages in Caucasus and Idel-Ural, without regard to the number of residents.

In Ukraine, a village, known locally as a selo (село), is considered the lowest administrative unit. Villages may have an individual administration (silrada) or a joint administration, combining two or more villages. Villages may also be under the jurisdiction of a city council (miskrada) or town council (selyshchna rada) administration.

There is, however, another smaller type of settlement which is designated in Ukrainian as a selysche (селище). This type of community is generally referred to in English as a "settlement". In comparison with an urban-type settlement, Ukrainian legislation does not have a concrete definition or a criterion to differentiate such settlements from villages. They represent a type of a small rural locality that might have once been a khutir, a fisherman's settlement, or a dacha. They are administered by a silrada (council) located in a nearby adjacent village. Sometimes, the term "selysche" is also used in a more general way to refer to adjacent settlements near a bigger city including urban-type settlements (selysche miskoho typu) or villages. However, ambiguity is often avoided in connection with urbanized settlements by referring to them using the three-letter abbreviation smt instead.

The khutir (хутір) and stanytsia (станиця) are not part of the administrative division any longer, primarily due to collectivization. Khutirs were very small rural localities consisting of just few housing units and were sort of individual farms. They became really popular during the Stolypin reform in the early 20th century. During the collectivization, however, residents of such settlements were usually declared to be kulaks and had all their property confiscated and distributed to others (nationalized) without any compensation. The stanitsa likewise has not survived as an administrative term. The stanitsa was a type of a collective community that could include one or more settlements such as villages, khutirs, and others. Today, stanitsa-type formations have only survived in Kuban (Russian Federation) where Ukrainians were resettled during the time of the Russian Empire.

Western and Southern Europe


A commune is considered as a village if it is not part of a ville (urban unit). For the Insee, an urban unit has more than 2000 inhabitants living in buildings less than 200 metres from each others.[20] An independent association named Les Plus Beaux Villages de France

In Italy, villages are spread throughout the country.

In Spain, a village (pueblo or aldea) refers to a small population unit, smaller than a town (villa) and a city (ciudad), typically located in a rural environment. While commonly it is the smallest administrative unit (municipio), it is possible for a village to be legally composed of smaller population units in its territory. There is not a clear-cut distinction between villages, towns and cities in Spain, since they had been traditionally categorized according to their religious importance and their relationship with surrounding population units.

Villages are more usual in the northern and central regions, Azores Islands and in the Alentejo. Most of them have a church and a "Casa do Povo" (people's house), where the village's summer romarias or religious festivities are usually held. Summer is also when many villages are host to a range of folk festivals and fairs, taking advantage of the fact that many of the locals who reside abroad tend to come back to their native village for the holidays.

In the flood-prone districts of the Netherlands, particularly in the northern provinces of Friesland and Groningen, villages were traditionally built on low man-made hills called terpen before the introduction of regional dyke-systems. In modern days, the term dorp (lit. "village") is usually applied to settlements no larger than 20,000, though there's no official law regarding status of settlements in the Netherlands.

A village in the UK is a compact settlement of houses, smaller in size than a town, and generally based on agriculture or, in some areas, mining (such as Ouston, County Durham), quarrying or sea fishing. They are very similar to those in Ireland.

The major factors in the type of settlement are: location of water sources, organisation of agriculture and landholding, and likelihood of flooding.

Some villages have disappeared (for example, deserted medieval villages), sometimes leaving behind a church or manor house and sometimes nothing but bumps in the fields. Some show archaeological evidence of settlement at three or four different layers, each distinct from the previous one. Clearances may have been to accommodate sheep or game estates, or enclosure, or may have resulted from depopulation, such as after the Black Death or following a move of the inhabitants to more prosperous districts. Other villages have grown and merged and often form hubs within the general mass of suburbia—such as Hampstead, London and Didsbury in Manchester. Many villages are now predominantly dormitory locations and have suffered the loss of shops, churches and other facilities.

For many British people, the village represents an ideal of Great Britain. Seen as being far from the bustle of modern life, it is represented as quiet and harmonious, if a little inward-looking. This concept of an unspoilt Arcadia is present in many popular representations of the village such as the radio serial The Archers or the best kept village competitions.[23]

Many villages in South Yorkshire, North Nottinghamshire, North East Derbyshire, County Durham, South Wales and Northumberland are known as pit villages. These (such as Murton, County Durham) grew from hamlets when the sinking of a colliery in the early 20th century resulted in a rapid growth in their population and the colliery owners built new housing, shops, pubs and churches. Some pit villages outgrew nearby towns by area and population; for example, Rossington in South Yorkshire came to have over four times more people than the nearby town of Bawtry. Some pit villages grew to become towns; for example, Maltby in South Yorkshire grew from 600 people in the 19th century[24] to over 17,000 in 2007.[25] Maltby was constructed under the auspices of the Sheepbridge Coal and Iron Company and included ample open spaces and provision for gardens.[26]

In the UK, the main historical distinction between a hamlet and a village was that the latter had a church,[1] and so usually was the centre of worship for an ecclesiastical parish. However, some civil parishes may contain more than one village. The typical village had a pub or inn, shops, and a blacksmith. But many of these facilities are now gone, and many villages are dormitories for commuters. The population of such settlements ranges from a few hundred people to around five thousand. A village is distinguished from a town in that:

  • A village should not have a regular agricultural market, although today such markets are uncommon even in settlements which clearly are towns.
  • A village does not have a town hall nor a mayor.
  • If a village is the principal settlement of a civil parish, then any administrative body that administers it at parish level should be called a parish council or parish meeting, and not a town council or city council. However, some civil parishes have no functioning parish, town, or city council nor a functioning parish meeting. In Wales, where the equivalent of an English civil parish is called a Community, the body that administers it is called a Community Council. However, larger councils may elect to call themselves town councils.[27] In Scotland, the equivalent is also a community council, however, despite being statutory bodies they have no executive powers.[28]
  • There should be a clear green belt or open fields, as, for example, seen on aerial maps for Ouston surrounding its parish[29] borders. However this may not be applicable to urbanised villages: although these may not be considered to be villages, they are often widely referred to as being so; an example of this is Horsforth in Leeds.

Middle East


Like France, villages in Lebanon are usually located in remote mountainous areas. The majority of villages in Lebanon retain their Aramaic names or are derivative of the Aramaic names, and this is because Aramaic was still in use in Mount Lebanon up to the 18th century.[30]

Many of the Lebanese villages are a part of districts, these districts are known as "kadaa" which includes the districts of Baabda (Baabda), Aley (Aley), Matn (Jdeideh), Keserwan (Jounieh), Chouf (Beiteddine), Jbeil (Byblos), Tripoli (Tripoli), Zgharta (Zgharta / Ehden), Bsharri (Bsharri), Batroun (Batroun), Koura (Amioun), Miniyeh-Danniyeh (Minyeh / Sir Ed-Danniyeh), Zahle (Zahle), Rashaya (Rashaya), Western Beqaa (Jebjennine / Saghbine), Sidon (Sidon), Jezzine (Jezzine), Tyre (Tyre), Nabatiyeh (Nabatiyeh), Marjeyoun (Marjeyoun), Hasbaya (Hasbaya), Bint Jbeil (Bint Jbeil), Baalbek (Baalbek), and Hermel (Hermel).

The district of Danniyeh consists of thirty-six small villages, which includes Almrah, Kfirchlan, Kfirhbab, Hakel al Azimah, Siir, Bakhoun, Miryata, Assoun, Sfiiri, Kharnoub, Katteen, Kfirhabou, Zghartegrein, Ein Qibil.

Danniyeh (known also as Addinniyeh, Al Dinniyeh, Al Danniyeh, Arabic: سير الضنية) is a region located in Miniyeh-Danniyeh District in the North Governorate of Lebanon.

An example of a typical mountainous Lebanese village in Dannieh would be Hakel al Azimah which is a small village that belongs to the district of Danniyeh, situated between Bakhoun and Assoun's boundaries.

Syria contains a large number of villages that vary in size and importance, including the ancient, historical and religious villages, such as Ma'loula, Sednaya, and Brad (Mar Maroun's time). The diversity of the Syrian environments creates significant differences between the Syrian villages in terms of the economic activity and the method of adoption. Villages in the south of Syria (Hauran, Jabal al-Druze), the north-east (the Syrian island) and the Orontes River basin depend mostly on agriculture, mainly grain, vegetables, and fruits. Villages in the region of Damascus and Aleppo depend on trading. Some other villages, such as Marmarita depend heavily on tourist activity.

Mediterranean cities in Syria, such as Tartus and Latakia have similar types of villages. Mainly, villages were built in very good sites which had the fundamentals of the rural life, like water. An example of a Mediterranean Syrian village in Tartus would be al-Annazah, which is a small village that belongs to the area of al-Sauda. The area of al-Sauda is called a nahiya, which is a subdistrict.

Australasia and Oceania


Pacific Islands Communities on Pacific islands were historically called villages by English speakers who traveled and settled in the area.

New Zealand The traditional Māori village was the , a fortified hill-top settlement. Tree-fern logs and flax were the main building materials. As in Australia (see below) the term is now used mainly in respect of shopping or other planned areas.

Australia The term village often is used in reference to small planned communities such as retirement communities or shopping districts, and tourist areas such as ski resorts. Small rural communities are usually known as townships. Larger settlements are known as towns.

South America


Argentina Usually set in remote mountainous areas, some also cater to winter sports or tourism.

North America


In contrast to the Old World, the concept of village in today's North America north of Mexico is largely disconnected from its rural and communal origins.

In twenty[31] U.S. states, the term "village" refers to a specific form of incorporated municipal government, similar to a city but with less authority and geographic scope. However, this is a generality; in many states, there are villages that are an order of magnitude larger than the smallest cities in the state. The distinction is not necessarily based on population, but on the relative powers granted to the different types of municipalities and correspondingly, different obligations to provide specific services to residents.

In some states such as New York and Michigan, a village is usually an incorporated municipality, within a single town or civil township. In some cases, the village may be coterminous with the town or township, in which case the two may have a consolidated government. There are also villages that span the boundaries of more than one town or township; some villages may straddle county borders.

There is no population limit to villages in New York.

In Michigan, a village is always legally part of a township. Villages can incorporate land in multiple townships and even multiple counties. The largest village in the state is Beverly Hills in Southfield Township which had a population of 10,267 as of the 2010 census.

In the state of Wisconsin, a village is always legally separate from the towns that it has been incorporated from. The largest village is Menomonee Falls, which has over 32,000 residents.

In Ohio villages are often legally part of the township from which they were incorporated, although exceptions such as Hiram exist, in which the village is separate from the township.[32] They have no area limitations, but become cities if they grow a population of more than 5,000.[33]

In Maryland, a locality designated "Village of..." may be either an incorporated town or a special tax district.[34] An example of the latter is the Village of Friendship Heights.

In North Carolina, the only difference between cities, towns, and villages is the term itself.[35]

In many states, the term "village" is used to refer to a relatively small unincorporated community, similar to a hamlet in New York state. This informal usage may be found even in states that have villages as an incorporated municipality, although such usage might be considered incorrect and confusing.

In states that have New England towns, a "village" is a center of population or trade, including the town center, in an otherwise sparsely developed town or city — for instance, the village of Hyannis in the town of Barnstable, Massachusetts.

Africa


Villages in Nigeria vary significantly because of cultural and geographical differences.

Northern Nigeria

In the North, villages were under traditional rulers long before the Jihad of Shaikh Uthman Bin Fodio and after the Holy War. At that time Traditional rulers used to have absolute power in their administrative regions. After Dan Fodio's Jihad in 1804,[36] political structure of the North became Islamic where emirs were the political, administrative and spiritual leaders of their people. These emirs appointed a number of people to assist them in running the administration and that included villages.[37]

Every Hausa village was reigned by Magaji (Village head) who was answerable to his Hakimi (mayor) at the town level. The Magaji also had his cabinet who assisted him in ruling his village efficiently, among whom was Mai-Unguwa (Ward Head).[37]

With the creation of Native Authority in Nigerian provinces, the autocratic power of village heads along with all other traditional rulers was subdued hence they ruled 'under the guidance of colonial officials'.[39]

Even though the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria has not recognised the functions of traditional rulers, they still command respect in their villages[39] and political office holders liaise with them almost every time to reach people.

In Hausa language, village is called ƙauye and every local government area is made up of several small and large ƙauyuka (villages). For instance, Girka is a village in Kaita town in Katsina state in Nigeria. They have mud houses with thatched roofing though, like in most of the villages in the North, zinc roofing is becoming a common sight.

Still in many villages in the North, people do not have access to portable water.[40] So they fetch water from ponds and streams.

Electricity and GSM network are reaching more and more villages in the North almost every day.

Southern Nigeria

Village dwellers in the Southeastern region lived separately in "clusters of huts belonging to the patrilinage".[43] As the rainforest region is dominated by Igbo speaking people, the villages are called ime obodo (inside town) in Igbo language. A typical large village might have a few thousand persons who shared the same market, meeting place and beliefs.

In South Africa the majority of people in rural areas reside in villages.

See also


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is a village in Vas County, Hungary with a population of 679 (2004). It covers 10.66 km2.

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A person.

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Wu Rui (died 202 BC), King Wen of Changsha, was an ancient Chinese general who helped Liu Bang establish the Han dynasty. A Baiyue magistrate of Po County under the Qin dynasty, he rose to become King of Hengshan during the collapse of Qin and was enfeoffed as King of Changsha during the early Han dynasty.

Life


An ethnic Yue, Wu Rui was the son of Wu Shen (, Wú Shēn), formerly grand marshal (司馬, dà sīmǎ, the highest military office) of the Chu state. During the Qin dynasty, Wu Rui was the magistrate of Po County, which had not yet flooded. He enjoyed high popularity among the local Baiyue people and was known as "Lord of the Po" (). After Chen Sheng launched the Dazexiang Uprising against the Qin, Wu Rui organized a Baiyue army and joined the rebellion. Wu Rui's followers included Mei Xuan (, Méi Xuān) and his son-in-law Ying Bu, both of whom assisted Liu Bang and played a major role in his victory against Qin and Xiang Yu.

In 206 BC, Wu Rui was bestowed the title King of Hengshan (衡山, Héngshān wáng) by Xiang Yu, as one of the 18 kings under the "Hegemon-King of Western Chu". In 202 BC, after Liu Bang's victory in the Battle of Gaixia, Wu Rui, along with other kings loyal to Liu Bang, called the latter to take the title of emperor. After the foundation of Han dynasty, he was moved from Hengshan to become the King of Changsha. Wu Rui died shortly after reaching Linxiang (present-day Changsha), the capital of his new fief.

Legacy


Wu Rui was buried near Changsha.

In the early Three Kingdoms Period, Wu Rui's tomb was demolished to provide the source of wood for a new temple for Sun Jian. The body was so well preserved that one of the participants later commented to Wu Gang (, Wú Gāng) "colonel of the Nanman" (南蠻校尉, Nánmán xiàowèi) and a living descendant of Wu Rui, that he looked particularly similar to his ancestor.

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Zhang Yi (before 329 BC – 309 BC[1]), was born in the Wei state[2] during the Warring States period of Chinese history. He was an important strategist in helping Qin to dissolve the unity of the other states, and hence pave the way for Qin to unify China. He was an advocate of horizontal alliance, unlike Su Qin; both were adherents of the School of Diplomacy.[3]

Biography


A native of the State of Wei,[4] Zhang Yi studied under Guiguzi[5] and learnt politics and foreign relations.[3] After Su Qin died,[5] Zhang left Guiguzi, and arrived at the state of Chu.[6] He received a severe beating at a banquet in the house of a minister of Chu when he was wrongly accused of stealing a gem. It is said that on his return home, he said to his wife, "Look and see if they have left me my tongue." And when his wife declared that it was safe and sound, he cried out, "If I still have my tongue, that is all I want."[4] He then went to the state of Qin in 329 BC, and saw King Hui of Qin, who had earlier rejected Su.[3][6] King Hui accepted him as a high minister, and in 328 BC he led a successful campaign against his native state, by which Qin acquired a large part of Wei.[4]

At that time, Su Qin's vertical alliance tactic still influenced China, and formed a sort of unity between the states of Han, Zhao, Wei, Chu, Yan and Qi. Zhang offered ideas to King Hui about ways to befriend Wei and Yan in order to break the alliance, which Hui graciously accepted. Hui decided to make him the prime minister.[3]

In 314 BC, civil war broke out in Yan.

Zhang repeatedly negotiated with Han, Zhao, Wei, Chu, Yan and Qi, thereby destroying their relationships with horizontal alliances, and paving the way for Qin's unification of China.[3][6]

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Wu Qi (simplified Chinese: 吴起; traditional Chinese: 吳起; pinyin: Wú Qǐ; Wade–Giles: Wu Ch'i, 440–381 BC) was a Chinese military leader, Legalist philosopher, and politician in the Warring States period.

Biography


Born in the State of Wei (衞), he was skilled in leading armies and military strategy. He had served in the states of Lu and Wei (魏, not to be confused with Wèi, as in previous note). In the state of Wei he commanded many great battles and was appointed Xihe Shou (Mayor of Xihe county). Xihe was the area between the Yellow and Luo Rivers that Wei had just taken from Qin. Later, after he became estranged from the lord of Wei and was forced into exile, Wu Qi went to the State of Chu where he was appointed Prime minister by King Dao of Chu (楚悼王). His reforms made Chu a strong state at that time. The reforms he instituted enraged the old nobility of Chu and he was killed after the death of King Dao.

Wu's reforms, which started around 389 BC, were generally aimed at changing the corrupt and inefficient government.

Another of Wu's actions was to move all the nobles to the borders on the frontier, away from the capital, in order to reduce their power and at the same time populate those areas, making them more useful to the state government.

Although his reforms soon started to make Chu a powerful country, the nobles and Daoists of Chu hated him. Nobles accused him of trying to change the old ways, and even managed to find fault with the building codes. Daoists accused him of being a "warmonger" and an "admirer of force and weaponry", even going as far as to say that he was "a threat to humanity". He was accused of not returning for the mourning period of his mother's death and for murdering his own wife (who was the daughter of a noble from the rival state of Qi) in order to gain trust from the ruler of the state of Lu. There is no definitive evidence to the truth of these accusations, and it is possible they were manufactured by Wu Qi's political enemies to slander him.

In the wake of Wu Qi's reforms, Chu's prowess was quickly manifest: Chu defeated the Yue state in the south and the Wei in the north, dealing with each in quick succession. However, King Dao died that same year. The old nobles plotted to assassinate Wu Qi at King Dao's funeral, where he would be separated from the army. Wu Qi spotted the assassins armed with bows, and rushed to the side of King Dao's body. He was killed, but many arrows struck the dead King. The new King Su (楚肃王), furious at his father's body being mutilated, ordered all nobles involved to be executed, along with their families.

Wei Liaozi


According to the Wei Liaozi, a treatise on military matters dating from the late 4th or early 3rd century BC, the general Wu Qi was once offered a sword by his subordinates on the eve of battle. However Wu Qi refused to accept the weapon on the basis that banners and drums, the tools to lead and command, were the only instruments a general required. In his words, "to command the troops and direct their blades, this is the role of a commander. To wield a single sword is not his role." The point here is to highlight the idea that the general was the brain of the army, whereas the soldiers were to behave as the limbs. Heroic individual actions were disincentivized in preference to complete obedience and perfect coordination as a unit, a concept which the Wei Liaozi elucidates upon in another parable concerning Wu Qi: Prior to the beginning of a battle, one of Wu's soldiers broke from his ranks in his enthusiasm and charged the enemy line, slaying two men, and trotted back to his former position along with their heads as trophies. Wu immediately ordered the man to be put to death. When his officers protested that he was a fine warrior, Wu Qi answered, "He is indeed a fine warrior, but he disobeyed my orders." As with Sun Zi and his Art of War, Wu Qi emphasized discipline and obedience before bravery as the most important traits in soldiery.

Popular culture


He and Sun Zi are often mentioned in the same sentence (Sun-Wu, 孙武) as great military strategists of similar if not equal importance.

His military treatise, the Wuzi, is included as one of the Seven Military Classics

Wu Qi is one of the 32 historical figures who appear as special characters in the video game series Romance of the Three Kingdoms (video game) by Koei.

See also


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Bian Que/扁鹊 was, according to legend, the earliest known Chinese physician.

Life and legend


According to the legend recorded in the Records of the Grand Historian (史记·扁鹊仓公列传), he was gifted with clairvoyance from a deity when he was working as an attendant at a hostel that catered to the nobility. It was there he encountered an old man who had stayed there for many years. Thankful for Bian Que's attentive service and politeness, the old man gave him a packet of medicine which he told Bian Que to boil in water. After taking this medicine, Bian Que gained the ability to see through the human body and thereby became an excellent diagnostician with X-ray-like ability. He also excelled in pulse taking and acupuncture therapy. He is ascribed the authorship of Bian Que Neijing (Internal Classic of Bian Que). Han Dynasty physicians claimed to have studied his works, which have since been lost. Tales state that he was a doctor of many disciplines, conforming to the local needs wherever he went. For example, in one city he was a children's doctor, and in another a female physician.

One famous legend tells of how once when Bian Que was in the State of Cai, he saw the lord of the state at the time and told him that he had a disease, which Bian Que claimed was only in his skin. The lord brushed this aside as at that time he felt no symptoms, and told his attendants that Bian Que was just trying to profit from the fears of others. Bian Que is said to have visited the lord many times thereafter, telling him each time how this sickness was becoming progressively worse, each time spreading into more of his body, from his skin to his blood and to his organs. The last time Bian Que went to see the lord, he looked in from afar, and rushed out of the palace. When an attendant of the lord asked him why he had done this, he replied that the disease was in the marrow and was incurable. The lord was said to have died soon after.

Another legend stated that once, while visiting the state of Guo, he saw people mourning on the streets.

Bian Que advocated the four-step diagnoses of "Looking (at their tongues and their outside appearances), Listening (to their voice and breathing patterns), Inquiring (about their symptoms), and Taking (their pulse)."

The Daoist Liezi has a legend (tr. Giles 1912:81-83) that Bian Que used anesthesia to perform a double heart transplantation, with the xin 心 "heart; mind" as the seat of consciousness. Gong Hu 公扈 from Lu and Qi Ying 齊嬰 from Zhao had opposite imbalances of qi 氣 "breath; life-force" and zhi 志 "will; intention". Gong had a qi "mental power" deficiency while Qi had a zhi "willpower" deficiency.

Bian Que suggests exchanging the hearts of the two to attain balance.

See also


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Marquis_Wen_of_Jin]====


He killed King Xie/携.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Hui_Shi]====


Hui Shi/惠施, or Huizi/惠子, was a Chinese philosopher during the Warring States period.

The philosophical writings of Hui Shi are no longer extant, but several Chinese classic texts refer to him, including the Zhan Guo Ce, Lüshi Chunqiu, Han Feizi, Xunzi, and most frequently, the Zhuangzi.

Nine Zhuangzi chapters mention Hui Shi, calling him "Huizi" 26 times and "Hui Shi" 9 times.

"Under Heaven" lists Hui Shi's ten theses (sometimes referred to as the ten paradoxes):

Hui Shih was a man of many devices and his writings would fill five carriages.

"The largest thing has nothing beyond it; it is called the One of largeness.

"That which has no thickness cannot be piled up; yet it is a thousand li in dimension."

"Heaven is as low as earth; mountains and marshes are on the same level."

"The sun at noon is the sun setting.

"Great similarities are different from little similarities; these are called the little similarities and differences.

"The southern region has no limit and yet has a limit."

"I set off for Yueh today and came there yesterday."

"Linked rings can be separated."

"I know the center of the world: it is north of Yen and south of Yueh."

"Let love embrace the ten thousand things; Heaven and earth are a single body."

With sayings such as these, Hui Shih tried to introduce a more magnanimous view of the world and to enlighten the rhetoricians.

— Zhuangzi, 33, tr.

Most of the other Zhuangzi passages portray Hui Shi (Huizi) as a friendly rival of Zhuangzi (Wade–Giles: Chuang1 Tzu3).

Chuang Tzu and Hui Tzu were strolling along the dam of the Hao River when Chuang Tzu said, "See how the minnows come out and dart around where they please!

Hui Tzu said, "You're not a fish - how do you know what fish enjoy?"

Chuang Tzu said, "You're not I, so how do you know I don't know what fish enjoy?"

Hui Tzu said, "I'm not you, so I certainly don't know what you know.

Chuang Tzu said, "Let's go back to your original question, please.

— Zhuangzi, 17, tr.

According to these ancient Daoist stories, Zhuangzi and Hui Shi remained friendly rivals until death.

Chuang Tzu was accompanying a funeral when he passed by the grave of Hui Tzu.

— Zhuangzi, 24, tr.

Chad Hansen (2003:146) interprets this lament as "the loss of a philosophical partnership, of two like-minded but disagreeing intellectual companions engaged in the joys of productive philosophical argument."

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Jing Ke (? – 227 BC), was a retainer of Crown Prince Dan of the Yan state and renowned for his failed assassination attempt of King Zheng of the Qin state, who later became Qin Shi Huang, China's first emperor (reign from 221 BC to 210 BC). His story is told in the chapter entitled Biographies of Assassins (刺客列傳) in Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian

Background


In 230 BC, the Qin state began conquering other states as part of a unification plan. Qin's army successfully annihilated the weakest of the Seven Warring States, Han. Two years later Zhao was also conquered.[2]

In exchange for peace, King Xi of Yan had earlier forced his son Crown Prince Dan to be held hostage by the Qin, but Prince Dan returned knowing that Qin was far stronger than Yan and would attack it sooner or later.[2]

Jing Ke originally came from the State of Wey.[3] He was a scholar, proficient in the art of the sword. His homeland of Wei was absorbed by Qin, and Jing Ke fled to Yan.[2][2] A Youxia named Tian Guang (田光) first introduced him to Prince Dan.[4] There Jing Ke accepted the hospitality of Prince Dan, who as a last resort decided to send an assassin against the King of Qin.[2] The plan involved either kidnapping the king and forcing him to release the territories from his control; or failing this, killing him.[2] The expectation in either case was that Qin would be left disorganized, enabling the other six major states to unite against it.[2]

Assassination attempt


In 228 BC, the Qin army was already at the Zhao capital of Handan, and was waiting to approach the state of Yan. Jing Ke agreed to go to Qin and pretend to be a nobleman begging for mercy.[2] According to events at the time, Dukang (督亢) (in present-day Hebei Province) was the first part of the Yan state that the Qin wanted, by reason of its fertile farmland.[2] The plan was to present as gifts the map of Dukang[2] and the severed head of the traitorous Qin general Fan Wuji[2] to the king of Qin, in order to approach him.

At the time, General Fan Wuji had lost favor with Qin and wanted revenge against it;[2] whereas the Qin state put a bounty on capturing him of 1,000 gold pieces.[6] Jing Ke went to Fan himself to discuss the assassination plan. Fan Wuji believed that the plan would work, and agreed to commit suicide so that his head could be collected.[2][6]

Prince Dan then obtained the sharpest possible dagger, refined it with poison, and gave it to Jing Ke.[2] To accompany him, Prince Dan assigned Qin Wuyang as his assistant.[2] Qin Wuyang was known to have successfully committed murder at age of 13.[2]

In 227 BC, Prince Dan and other guests wore white clothing and white hats at the Yi River (易水) to send the pair of assassins off.[2] Jing Ke reportedly sang a song "the wind blows, the river freezes.

Concealing the dagger inside the map scroll, Jing Ke and Qin Wuyang represented the Yan and met with the King.[2] Qin Wuyang reportedly became so nervous that he acted almost paralyzed when entering the presence of the King. Jing Ke explained that his partner had never set eyes on the Son of Heaven.[7] Other sources suggest Jing Ke described Qin Wuyang as a rural boy from the countryside who had never seen the world.[2]

When the King opened the map, Jing Ke immediately seized the revealed dagger and attacked the King, who managed to back away from the initial thrust, tearing off a sleeve in the process.

Seeing the king in grave danger, a royal physician named Xia Wuju (夏無且) grabbed his medicine bag and threw it at Jing Ke.[2] This slowed down the assassin just enough to allow the king to recover some distance.

Yan annihilation


After Jing Ke's attempt, the Qin army general Wang Jian was sent against the Yan state. In 226 BC, Prince Dan sent his army to fight at Ji (薊),[2] but were soon defeated. In an effort to try to appease the King of Qin, King Xi of Yan put his son to death; however, the Yan were annexed nonetheless and the Yan were destroyed.[2]

In popular culture


  • The Chinese film The Emperor and the Assassin (1999), featuring Gong Li and others, is based on the aforementioned events. Jing Ke himself does not appear in the films The Emperor's Shadow (1996), directed by Zhou Xiaowen, or Hero (2002) starring Jet Li; but both films borrow elements from his story.
  • A fictionalized version of Jing Ke appears in the film Highlander: Endgame (2000), played by actor and martial artist Donnie Yen. In the film, Jing Ke is, like the other principal characters, an immortal warrior living in the story's present day. The film alters the spelling of Jing Ke's name to "Jin Ke" and makes reference to his historical association with Qin Shi Huang.[9]
  • The Chinese film Hero (2002) is loosely based on Jing Ke's assassination attempt, with Jet Li playing the assassin.
  • The character Tsing Yi in John Woo's Last Hurrah for Chivalry
  • A Chinese TV series called Assassinator Jing Ke (荆轲传奇) was produced in 2004, depicting a fictionalized biography of Jing Ke, starring Liu Ye, Wang Yanan, and Peter Ho.
  • Jing Ke is a spy in the computer game Civilization IV: Beyond the Sword
  • Jing Ke is one of the heroes in The Legend of Qin, 3D animation series, father of the protagonist, Jing Tianming. Ke's farewell song is also quoted in this series.
  • Jing Ke's song as he left for his mission was played in the song Episode 119 Medley in an episode of the show Community, when Señor Chang entered the library to kill off the two remaining students in the paintball fight.
  • Jing Ke appears in the mobile game Fate/Grand Order
  • Jing Ke's story is the basis of the plot of Katanagatari
  • Jing Ke is the protagonist of the short story "The Circle" by Liu Cixin.
  • Jing Ke appears in the fictional historical drama The King's Woman based off the novel The Legend of Qin: Li Ji Story (秦时明月之丽姬传).
  • Nobel laureate Mo Yan wrote a play in 2003, entitled "Our Jing Ke" (我们的荆轲), which retells the story of Jing Ke's failed assassination attempt.

See also


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Kaesong]====


A city.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Yanbian_Korean_Autonomous_Prefecture]====


Belonging to Zhou (since 1122 bc)'s Yemaek.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Wi_Jang_of_Gojoseon]====


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Biryu_(disambiguation)]====


Biryu may refer to:

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Gold]====


Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from Latin: aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia (a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid), which forms a soluble tetrachloroaurate anion.

A relatively rare element,[6][7] gold is a precious metal that has been used for coinage, jewelry, and other arts throughout recorded history.

A total of 197,576 tonnes of gold exists above ground, as of 2019.[8] This is equal to a cube with each side measuring roughly 21.7 meters (71 ft).

Contents

1 Characteristics

1.1 Color

1.2 Isotopes

1.2.1 Synthesis

2 Chemistry

2.1 Rare oxidation states

2.2 Medicinal uses

3 Origin

3.1 Gold production in the universe

3.2 Asteroid origin theories

3.3 Mantle return theories

4 Occurrence

4.1 Seawater

5 History

5.1 Etymology

5.2 Culture

5.2.1 Blood gold

5.2.2 Religion

6 Production

6.1 Mining and prospecting

6.2 Extraction and refining

6.3 Consumption

6.4 Pollution

7 Monetary use

7.1 Price

7.2 History

8 Other applications

8.1 Jewelry

8.2 Electronics

8.3 Medicine

8.4 Cuisine

8.5 Miscellanea

9 Toxicity

10 See also

11 References

12 External links

Characteristics

Gold can be drawn into a monoatomic wire, and then stretched more before it breaks.[11]

A gold nugget of 5 mm (0.20 in) in size can be hammered into a gold foil of about 0.5 m2 (5.4 sq ft) in area.

Gold is the most malleable of all metals.

Gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3, almost identical to that of tungsten at 19.25 g/cm3; as such, tungsten has been used in counterfeiting of gold bars, such as by plating a tungsten bar with gold,[15][16][17][18] or taking an existing gold bar, drilling holes, and replacing the removed gold with tungsten rods.[19] By comparison, the density of lead is 11.34 g/cm3, and that of the densest element, osmium, is 22.588±0.015 g/cm3.[20]

Color

Main article: Colored gold

Different colors of Ag–Au–Cu alloys

Whereas most metals are gray or silvery white, gold is slightly reddish-yellow.[21] This color is determined by the frequency of plasma oscillations among the metal's valence electrons, in the ultraviolet range for most metals but in the visible range for gold due to relativistic effects affecting the orbitals around gold atoms.[22][23] Similar effects impart a golden hue to metallic caesium.

Common colored gold alloys include the distinctive eighteen-karat rose gold created by the addition of copper.

Colloidal gold, used by electron-microscopists, is red if the particles are small; larger particles of colloidal gold are blue.[25]

Isotopes

Main article: Isotopes of gold

Gold has only one stable isotope, 197

Au, which is also its only naturally occurring isotope, so gold is both a mononuclidic and monoisotopic element.

Au with a half-life of 186.1 days.

Au, which decays by proton emission with a half-life of 30 µs.

Au, which decays by electron capture, and 196

Au, which decays most often by electron capture (93%) with a minor β− decay path (7%).[26] All of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses above 197 decay by β− decay.[27]

At least 32 nuclear isomers have also been characterized, ranging in atomic mass from 170 to 200.

Au, 180

Au, 181

Au, 182

Au, and 188

Au do not have isomers.

Au with a half-life of 2.27 days.

Au with a half-life of only 7 ns.

Au has three decay paths: β+ decay, isomeric transition, and alpha decay.

Synthesis

The possible production of gold from a more common element, such as lead, has long been a subject of human inquiry, and the ancient and medieval discipline of alchemy often focused on it; however, the transmutation of the chemical elements did not become possible until the understanding of nuclear physics in the 20th century.

Gold can currently be manufactured in a nuclear reactor by irradiation either of platinum or mercury.

Only the mercury isotope 196Hg, which occurs with a frequency of 0.15% in natural mercury, can be converted to gold by neutron capture, and following electron capture-decay into 197Au with slow neutrons.

Using fast neutrons, the mercury isotope 198Hg, which comprises 9.97% of natural mercury, can be converted by splitting off a neutron and becoming 197Hg, which then disintegrates to stable gold.

It is also possible to eject several neutrons with very high energy into the other mercury isotopes in order to form 197Hg.

Chemistry

Gold(III) chloride solution in water

Although gold is the most noble of the noble metals,[30][31] it still forms many diverse compounds.

Au(III) (referred to as the auric) is a common oxidation state, and is illustrated by gold(III) chloride, Au2Cl6.

Gold does not react with oxygen at any temperature[33] and, up to 100 °C, is resistant to attack from ozone.[34]

Some free halogens react with gold.[35] Gold is strongly attacked by fluorine at dull-red heat[36] to form gold(III) fluoride.

Gold does not react with sulfur directly,[38] but gold(III) sulfide can be made by passing hydrogen sulfide through a dilute solution of gold(III) chloride or chlorauric acid.

Gold readily dissolves in mercury at room temperature to form an amalgam, and forms alloys with many other metals at higher temperatures.

Gold is unaffected by most acids.

Gold is similarly unaffected by most bases.

Common oxidation states of gold include +1 (gold(I) or aurous compounds) and +3 (gold(III) or auric compounds).

Rare oxidation states

Less common oxidation states of gold include −1, +2, and +5.

The −1 oxidation state occurs in aurides, compounds containing the Au− anion.

Gold(II) compounds are usually diamagnetic with Au–Au bonds such as [Au(CH

2)

2P(C

6H

5)

2]

2Cl

2. The evaporation of a solution of Au(OH)

3 in concentrated H

2SO

4 produces red crystals of gold(II) sulfate, Au2(SO4)2.

2 cations, analogous to the better-known mercury(I) ion, Hg2+

2.[42][43] A gold(II) complex, the tetraxenonogold(II) cation, which contains xenon as a ligand, occurs in [AuXe4](Sb2F11)2.[44]

Gold pentafluoride, along with its derivative anion, AuF−

6, and its difluorine complex, gold heptafluoride, is the sole example of gold(V), the highest verified oxidation state.[45]

Some gold compounds exhibit aurophilic bonding, which describes the tendency of gold ions to interact at distances that are too long to be a conventional Au–Au bond but shorter than van der Waals bonding.

Well-defined cluster compounds are numerous.[40] In such cases, gold has a fractional oxidation state.

6H

5)

3)}2+

6. Gold chalcogenides, such as gold sulfide, feature equal amounts of Au(I) and Au(III).

Medicinal uses

Medicinal applications of gold and its complexes have a long history dating back thousands of years.[46] Several gold complexes have been applied to treat rheumatoid arthritis, the most frequently used being aurothiomalate, aurothioglucose, and auranofin.

Origin

Gold production in the universe

Schematic of a NE (left) to SW (right) cross-section through the 2.020-billion-year-old Vredefort impact crater in South Africa and how it distorted the contemporary geological structures.

Gold is thought to have been produced in supernova nucleosynthesis, and from the collision of neutron stars,[48] and to have been present in the dust from which the Solar System formed.[49]

Traditionally, gold in the universe is thought to have formed by the r-process (rapid neutron capture) in supernova nucleosynthesis,[50] but more recently it has been suggested that gold and other elements heavier than iron may also be produced in quantity by the r-process in the collision of neutron stars.[51] In both cases, satellite spectrometers at first only indirectly detected the resulting gold.[52] However, in August 2017, the spectroscopic signatures of heavy elements, including gold, were observed by electromagnetic observatories in the GW170817 neutron star merger event, after gravitational wave detectors confirmed the event as a neutron star merger.[53] Current astrophysical models suggest that this single neutron star merger event generated between 3 and 13 Earth masses of gold.

Asteroid origin theories

Because the Earth was molten when it was formed, almost all of the gold present in the early Earth probably sank into the planetary core.

Gold which is reachable by humans has, in one case, been associated with a particular asteroid impact.

Mantle return theories

Notwithstanding the impact above, much of the rest of the gold on Earth is thought to have been incorporated into the planet since its very beginning, as planetesimals formed the planet's mantle, early in Earth's creation.

Occurrence

On Earth, gold is found in ores in rock formed from the Precambrian time onward.[65] It most often occurs as a native metal, typically in a metal solid solution with silver (i.e. as a gold/silver alloy).

Native gold occurs as very small to microscopic particles embedded in rock, often together with quartz or sulfide minerals such as "fool's gold", which is a pyrite.[66] These are called lode deposits.

Gold sometimes occurs combined with tellurium as the minerals calaverite, krennerite, nagyagite, petzite and sylvanite (see telluride minerals), and as the rare bismuthide maldonite (Au2Bi) and antimonide aurostibite (AuSb2).

Recent research suggests that microbes can sometimes play an important role in forming gold deposits, transporting and precipitating gold to form grains and nuggets that collect in alluvial deposits.[67]

Another recent study has claimed water in faults vaporizes during an earthquake, depositing gold.

Seawater

The world's oceans contain gold.

A number of people have claimed to be able to economically recover gold from sea water, but they were either mistaken or acted in an intentional deception.

History

An Indian tribute-bearer at Apadana, from the Achaemenid satrapy of Hindush, carrying gold on a yoke, circa 500 BC.[73]

The Muisca raft, between circa 600-1600 AD.

This Muisca raft figure is on display in the Gold Museum, Bogotá, Colombia.

The earliest recorded metal employed by humans appears to be gold, which can be found free or "native".

The oldest known map of a gold mine was drawn in the 19th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt (1320–1200 BC), whereas the first written reference to gold was recorded in the 12th Dynasty around 1900 BC.[77] Egyptian hieroglyphs from as early as 2600 BC describe gold, which King Tushratta of the Mitanni claimed was "more plentiful than dirt" in Egypt.[78] Egypt and especially Nubia had the resources to make them major gold-producing areas for much of history.

Ancient golden Kritonios Crown, funerary or marriage material, 370–360 BC.

Gold is mentioned in the Amarna letters numbered 19[79] and 26[80] from around the 14th century BC.[81][82]

Gold is mentioned frequently in the Old Testament, starting with Genesis 2:11 (at Havilah), the story of the golden calf, and many parts of the temple including the Menorah and the golden altar.

In Roman metallurgy, new methods for extracting gold on a large scale were developed by introducing hydraulic mining methods, especially in Hispania from 25 BC onwards and in Dacia from 106 AD onwards.

During Mansa Musa's (ruler of the Mali Empire from 1312 to 1337) hajj to Mecca in 1324, he passed through Cairo in July 1324, and was reportedly accompanied by a camel train that included thousands of people and nearly a hundred camels where he gave away so much gold that it depressed the price in Egypt for over a decade, causing high inflation.[84] A contemporary Arab historian remarked:

Gold was at a high price in Egypt until they came in that year.

— Chihab Al-Umari, Kingdom of Mali[85]

Gold coin of Eucratides I (171–145 BC), one of the Hellenistic rulers of ancient Ai-Khanoum.

The European exploration of the Americas was fueled in no small part by reports of the gold ornaments displayed in great profusion by Native American peoples, especially in Mesoamerica, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia.

Gold played a role in western culture, as a cause for desire and of corruption, as told in children's fables such as Rumpelstiltskin—where Rumpelstiltskin turns hay into gold for the peasant's daughter in return for her child when she becomes a princess—and the stealing of the hen that lays golden eggs in Jack and the Beanstalk.

The top prize at the Olympic Games and many other sports competitions is the gold medal.

75% of the presently accounted for gold has been extracted since 1910.

One main goal of the alchemists was to produce gold from other substances, such as lead — presumably by the interaction with a mythical substance called the philosopher's stone.

The Dome of the Rock is covered with an ultra-thin golden glassier.

Minoan jewellery; 2300–2100 BC; various sizes; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)

Pair of Sumerian earrings with cuneiform inscriptions; 2093–2046 BC; Sulaymaniyah Museum (Sulaymaniyah, Iraq)

Ancient Egyptian statuette of Amun; 945–715 BC; gold; 175 mm × 47 mm (6.9 in × 1.9 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art

Ancient Egyptian signet ring; 664–525 BC; gold; diameter: 30 mm × 34 mm (1.2 in × 1.3 in); British Museum (London)

Ancient Greek stater; 323–315 BC; 18 mm (0.71 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art

Etruscan funerary wreath; 4th–3rd century BC; length: 333 mm (13.1 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art

Roman aureus of Hadrian; 134–138 AD; 7.4 g; Metropolitan Museum of Art

Quimbaya lime container; 5th–9th century; gold; height: 230 mm (9.1 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art

Byzantine scyphate; 1059–1067; diameter: 25 mm (0.98 in); Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio, USA)

Pre-Columbian pendant with two bat-head warriors who carry spears; 11th–16th century; gold; overall: 76.2 mm (3.00 in); from the Chiriqui Province (Panama); Metropolitan Museum of Art

English Neoclassical box; 1741; overall: 44 mm × 116 mm × 92 mm (1.7 in × 4.6 in × 3.6 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art

French Rococo glass bottle mounted in gold; circa 1775; overall: 70 mm × 29 mm (2.8 in × 1.1 in); Cleveland Museum of Art

Etymology

An early mention of gold in the Beowulf

"Gold" is cognate with similar words in many Germanic languages, deriving via Proto-Germanic gulþą from Proto-Indo-European ǵʰelh₃- ("to shine, to gleam; to be yellow or green").[90][91]

The symbol Au is from the Latin: aurum, the Latin word for "gold".[92] The Proto-Indo-European ancestor of aurum was h₂é-h₂us-o-, meaning "glow". This word is derived from the same root (Proto-Indo-European h₂u̯es- "to dawn") as h₂éu̯sōs, the ancestor of the Latin word Aurora, "dawn".[93] This etymological relationship is presumably behind the frequent claim in scientific publications that aurum meant "shining dawn".[94]

Culture

This section needs additional citations for verification.

Gold crafts from the Philippines prior to Western contact.

Outside chemistry, gold is mentioned in a variety of expressions, most often associated with intrinsic worth.[41] Great human achievements are frequently rewarded with gold, in the form of gold medals, gold trophies and other decorations.

Aristotle in his ethics used gold symbolism when referring to what is now known as the golden mean.

Gold is further associated with the wisdom of aging and fruition.

Blood gold

See also: Triangular trade § Atlantic triangular slave trade

The British Gold Coast (Ghana today) and the Guinea region were among of the main centres of European trade in slaves and gold.

Religion

The Agusan image, depicting a deity from northeast Mindanao.

In some forms of Christianity and Judaism, gold has been associated both with holiness and evil.

In Islam,[98] gold (along with silk)[99][100] is often cited as being forbidden for men to wear.[101] Abu Bakr al-Jazaeri, quoting a hadith, said that "[t]he wearing of silk and gold are forbidden on the males of my nation, and they are lawful to their women".[102] This, however, has not been enforced consistently throughout history, e.g. in the Ottoman Empire.[103] Further, small gold accents on clothing, such as in embroidery, may be permitted.[104]

According to Christopher Columbus, those who had something of gold were in possession of something of great value on Earth and a substance to even help souls to paradise.[105]

Wedding rings are typically made of gold.

On 24 August 2020, Israeli archaeologists discovered a trove of early Islamic gold coins near the central city of Yavne.

Production

Main article: List of countries by gold production

Time trend of gold production

The World Gold Council states that as of the end of 2017, "there were 187,200 tonnes of stocks in existence above ground".

In 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 440 tonnes.

Mining and prospecting

Main articles: Gold mining and Gold prospecting

A miner underground at Pumsaint gold mine, Wales; c. 1938.

Grasberg mine, Indonesia is the world's largest gold mine.

Since the 1880s, South Africa has been the source of a large proportion of the world's gold supply, and about 22% of the gold presently accounted is from South Africa.

As of 2017, China was the world's leading gold-mining country, followed in order by Australia, Russia, the United States, Canada, and Peru.

Relative sizes of an 860 kg (1,900 lb) block of gold ore and the 30 g (0.96 ozt) of gold that can be extracted from it, Toi gold mine, Japan.

In South America, the controversial project Pascua Lama aims at exploitation of rich fields in the high mountains of Atacama Desert, at the border between Chile and Argentina.

It has been estimated that up to one-quarter of the yearly global gold production originates from artisanal or small scale mining.[110][111][112]

The city of Johannesburg located in South Africa was founded as a result of the Witwatersrand Gold Rush which resulted in the discovery of some of the largest natural gold deposits in recorded history.

The Second Boer War of 1899–1901 between the British Empire and the Afrikaner Boers was at least partly over the rights of miners and possession of the gold wealth in South Africa.

During the 19th century, gold rushes occurred whenever large gold deposits were discovered.

Grasberg mine located in Papua, Indonesia is the largest gold mine in the world.[116]

Extraction and refining

Main article: Gold extraction

Gold jewelry consumption by country in tonnes[117][118][119]

Country 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

India 442.37 745.70 986.3 864 974

China 376.96 428.00 921.5 817.5 1120.1

United States 150.28 128.61 199.5 161 190

Turkey 75.16 74.07 143 118 175.2

Saudi Arabia 77.75 72.95 69.1 58.5 72.2

Russia 60.12 67.50 76.7 81.9 73.3

United Arab Emirates 67.60 63.37 60.9 58.1 77.1

Egypt 56.68 53.43 36 47.8 57.3

Indonesia 41.00 32.75 55 52.3 68

United Kingdom 31.75 27.35 22.6 21.1 23.4

Other Persian Gulf Countries 24.10 21.97 22 19.9 24.6

Japan 21.85 18.50 −30.1 7.6 21.3

South Korea 18.83 15.87 15.5 12.1 17.5

Vietnam 15.08 14.36 100.8 77 92.2

Thailand 7.33 6.28 107.4 80.9 140.1

Total 1466.86 1770.71 2786.12 2477.7 3126.1

Other Countries 251.6 254.0 390.4 393.5 450.7

World Total 1718.46 2024.71 3176.52 2871.2 3576.8

Gold extraction is most economical in large, easily mined deposits.

The average gold mining and extraction costs were about $317 per troy ounce in 2007, but these can vary widely depending on mining type and ore quality; global mine production amounted to 2,471.1 tonnes.[120]

After initial production, gold is often subsequently refined industrially by the Wohlwill process which is based on electrolysis or by the Miller process, that is chlorination in the melt.

As of 2020, the amount of CO2 produced in mining a kilogram of gold is 16 tonnes, while recycling a kilogram of gold produces 53 kilograms of CO2 equivalent.

Corporations are starting to adopt gold recycling including jewelry companies such as Generation Collection and computer companies including Dell.[125]

Consumption

The consumption of gold produced in the world is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry.[9][126]

According to World Gold Council, China is the world's largest single consumer of gold in 2013 and toppled India for the first time with Chinese consumption increasing by 32 percent in a year, while that of India only rose by 13 percent and world consumption rose by 21 percent.

Pollution

Further information: Mercury cycle and International Cyanide Management Code

Gold production is associated with contribution to hazardous pollution.[128][129]

Low-grade gold ore may contain less than one ppm gold metal; such ore is ground and mixed with sodium cyanide to dissolve the gold.

It was once common to use mercury to recover gold from ore, but today the use of mercury is largely limited to small-scale individual miners.[134] Minute quantities of mercury compounds can reach water bodies, causing heavy metal contamination.

Gold extraction is also a highly energy intensive industry, extracting ore from deep mines and grinding the large quantity of ore for further chemical extraction requires nearly 25 kWh of electricity per gram of gold produced.[135]

Monetary use

Two golden 20 kr coins from the Scandinavian Monetary Union, which was based on a gold standard.

Gold has been widely used throughout the world as money,[136] for efficient indirect exchange (versus barter), and to store wealth in hoards.

The first known coins containing gold were struck in Lydia, Asia Minor, around 600 BC.[83] The talent coin of gold in use during the periods of Grecian history both before and during the time of the life of Homer weighed between 8.42 and 8.75 grams.[137] From an earlier preference in using silver, European economies re-established the minting of gold as coinage during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.[138]

Bills (that mature into gold coin) and gold certificates (convertible into gold coin at the issuing bank) added to the circulating stock of gold standard money in most 19th century industrial economies.

After World War II gold was replaced by a system of nominally convertible currencies related by fixed exchange rates following the Bretton Woods system.

Central banks continue to keep a portion of their liquid reserves as gold in some form, and metals exchanges such as the London Bullion Market Association still clear transactions denominated in gold, including future delivery contracts.

The gold proportion (fineness) of alloys is measured by karat (k).

Although the prices of some platinum group metals can be much higher, gold has long been considered the most desirable of precious metals, and its value has been used as the standard for many currencies.

The ISO 4217 currency code of gold is XAU.[143] Many holders of gold store it in form of bullion coins or bars as a hedge against inflation or other economic disruptions, though its efficacy as such has been questioned; historically, it has not proven itself reliable as a hedging instrument.[144] Modern bullion coins for investment or collector purposes do not require good mechanical wear properties; they are typically fine gold at 24k, although the American Gold Eagle and the British gold sovereign continue to be minted in 22k (0.92) metal in historical tradition, and the South African Krugerrand, first released in 1967, is also 22k (0.92).[145]

The special issue Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coin contains the highest purity gold of any bullion coin, at 99.999% or 0.99999, while the popular issue Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coin has a purity of 99.99%.

Price

Further information: Gold as an investment

Gold price history in 1960–2020.

As of September 2017, gold is valued at around $42 per gram ($1,300 per troy ounce).

Like other precious metals, gold is measured by troy weight and by grams.

The price of gold is determined through trading in the gold and derivatives markets, but a procedure known as the Gold Fixing in London, originating in September 1919, provides a daily benchmark price to the industry.

History

Historically gold coinage was widely used as currency; when paper money was introduced, it typically was a receipt redeemable for gold coin or bullion.

On 17 March 1968, economic circumstances caused the collapse of the gold pool, and a two-tiered pricing scheme was established whereby gold was still used to settle international accounts at the old $35.00 per troy ounce ($1.13/g) but the price of gold on the private market was allowed to fluctuate; this two-tiered pricing system was abandoned in 1975 when the price of gold was left to find its free-market level.[citation needed] Central banks still hold historical gold reserves as a store of value although the level has generally been declining.[citation needed] The largest gold depository in the world is that of the U.S.

After 15 August 1971 Nixon shock, the price began to greatly increase,[151] and between 1968 and 2000 the price of gold ranged widely, from a high of $850 per troy ounce ($27.33/g) on 21 January 1980, to a low of $252.90 per troy ounce ($8.13/g) on 21 June 1999 (London Gold Fixing).[152] Prices increased rapidly from 2001, but the 1980 high was not exceeded until 3 January 2008, when a new maximum of $865.35 per troy ounce was set.[153] Another record price was set on 17 March 2008, at $1023.50 per troy ounce ($32.91/g).[153]

In late 2009, gold markets experienced renewed momentum upwards due to increased demand and a weakening US dollar.[citation needed] On 2 December 2009, gold reached a new high closing at $1,217.23.[154] Gold further rallied hitting new highs in May 2010 after the European Union debt crisis prompted further purchase of gold as a safe asset.[155][156] On 1 March 2011, gold hit a new all-time high of $1432.57, based on investor concerns regarding ongoing unrest in North Africa as well as in the Middle East.[157]

From April 2001 to August 2011, spot gold prices more than quintupled in value against the US dollar, hitting a new all-time high of $1,913.50 on 23 August 2011,[158] prompting speculation that the long secular bear market had ended and a bull market had returned.[159] However, the price then began a slow decline towards $1200 per troy ounce in late 2014 and 2015.

In August 2020, the gold price picked up to US$2060 per ounce after a complexive growth of 59% from August 2018 to October 2020, a period during which it outplaced the Nasdaq total return of 54%.[160]

Other applications

Jewelry

Moche gold necklace depicting feline heads.

A 21.5k yellow gold pendant watch so-called "Boule de Genève" (Geneva ball), ca. 1890.

Because of the softness of pure (24k) gold, it is usually alloyed with base metals for use in jewelry, altering its hardness and ductility, melting point, color and other properties.

By 2014, the gold jewelry industry was escalating despite a dip in gold prices.

Gold solder is used for joining the components of gold jewelry by high-temperature hard soldering or brazing.

Electronics

Only 10% of the world consumption of new gold produced goes to industry,[9] but by far the most important industrial use for new gold is in fabrication of corrosion-free electrical connectors in computers and other electrical devices.

Though gold is attacked by free chlorine, its good conductivity and general resistance to oxidation and corrosion in other environments (including resistance to non-chlorinated acids) has led to its widespread industrial use in the electronic era as a thin-layer coating on electrical connectors, thereby ensuring good connection.

Besides sliding electrical contacts, gold is also used in electrical contacts because of its resistance to corrosion, electrical conductivity, ductility and lack of toxicity.[164] Switch contacts are generally subjected to more intense corrosion stress than are sliding contacts.

The concentration of free electrons in gold metal is 5.91×1022 cm−3.[165] Gold is highly conductive to electricity, and has been used for electrical wiring in some high-energy applications (only silver and copper are more conductive per volume, but gold has the advantage of corrosion resistance).

It is estimated that 16% of the world's presently-accounted-for gold and 22% of the world's silver is contained in electronic technology in Japan.[166]

Medicine

Metallic and gold compounds have long been used for medicinal purposes.

In the 19th century gold had a reputation as an anxiolytic, a therapy for nervous disorders.

The apparent paradox of the actual toxicology of the substance suggests the possibility of serious gaps in the understanding of the action of gold in physiology.[171] Only salts and radioisotopes of gold are of pharmacological value, since elemental (metallic) gold is inert to all chemicals it encounters inside the body (i.e., ingested gold cannot be attacked by stomach acid).

Gold alloys are used in restorative dentistry, especially in tooth restorations, such as crowns and permanent bridges.

Colloidal gold preparations (suspensions of gold nanoparticles) in water are intensely red-colored, and can be made with tightly controlled particle sizes up to a few tens of nanometers across by reduction of gold chloride with citrate or ascorbate ions.

Gold, or alloys of gold and palladium, are applied as conductive coating to biological specimens and other non-conducting materials such as plastics and glass to be viewed in a scanning electron microscope.

The isotope gold-198 (half-life 2.7 days) is used in nuclear medicine, in some cancer treatments and for treating other diseases.[176][177]

Cuisine

Cake with gold decoration served at the Amstel Hotel, Amsterdam

Gold can be used in food and has the E number 175.[178] In 2016, the European Food Safety Authority published an opinion on the re-evaluation of gold as a food additive.

Gold leaf, flake or dust is used on and in some gourmet foods, notably sweets and drinks as decorative ingredient.[180] Gold flake was used by the nobility in medieval Europe as a decoration in food and drinks,[181] in the form of leaf, flakes or dust, either to demonstrate the host's wealth or in the belief that something that valuable and rare must be beneficial for one's health.[citation needed]

Danziger Goldwasser (German: Gold water of Danzig) or Goldwasser (English: Goldwater) is a traditional German herbal liqueur[182] produced in what is today Gdańsk, Poland, and Schwabach, Germany, and contains flakes of gold leaf.

Vark is a foil composed of a pure metal that is sometimes gold,[184] and is used for garnishing sweets in South Asian cuisine.

Miscellanea

Mirror for the James Webb Space Telescope coated in gold to reflect infrared light

Kamakshi Amman Temple with golden roof, Kanchipuram.

Gold produces a deep, intense red color when used as a coloring agent in cranberry glass.

In photography, gold toners are used to shift the color of silver bromide black-and-white prints towards brown or blue tones, or to increase their stability.

Gold is a good reflector of electromagnetic radiation such as infrared and visible light, as well as radio waves.

Gold is used as the reflective layer on some high-end CDs.

Automobiles may use gold for heat shielding.

Gold can be manufactured so thin that it appears semi-transparent.

Gold is attacked by and dissolves in alkaline solutions of potassium or sodium cyanide, to form the salt gold cyanide—a technique that has been used in extracting metallic gold from ores in the cyanide process.

Gold chloride (chloroauric acid) solutions are used to make colloidal gold by reduction with citrate or ascorbate ions.

Gold, when dispersed in nanoparticles, can act as a heterogeneous catalyst of chemical reactions.

Toxicity

Pure metallic (elemental) gold is non-toxic and non-irritating when ingested[189] and is sometimes used as a food decoration in the form of gold leaf.[190] Metallic gold is also a component of the alcoholic drinks Goldschläger, Gold Strike, and Goldwasser.

Soluble compounds (gold salts) such as gold chloride are toxic to the liver and kidneys.

Gold metal was voted Allergen of the Year in 2001 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society; gold contact allergies affect mostly women.[193] Despite this, gold is a relatively non-potent contact allergen, in comparison with metals like nickel.[194]

A sample of the fungus Aspergillus niger was found growing from gold mining solution; and was found to contain cyano metal complexes, such as gold, silver, copper, iron and zinc.

See also

Iron pyrite or "fool's gold"

Bulk leach extractable gold

Chrysiasis (dermatological condition)

Commodity fetishism (Marxist economic theory)

Digital gold currency

GFMS consultancy

Gold fingerprinting

Gold phosphine complex

Gold Prospectors Association of America

List of countries by gold production

Mining in Roman Britain

Prospecting

Tumbaga

Iron pyrite

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Michu_of_Silla]====


Michu of Silla, Baekje's people originally, escaped to Saro from sea.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Yue_(state)]====


A state.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Dao_(state)]====


A state.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Pi_(state)]====


A state.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Huang_(state)]====


A state.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


Chao/巢, a state, Count.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Yang_(state)]====


Yang/杨, a state.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Xian_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Hua_(state)]====


Hua/滑, state.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Xu_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Guan_(state)]====


A state.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Huo_(state)]====


A state.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Luo_(state)]====


A state.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Lai_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Sui_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Shen_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Ying_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Deng_(state)]====


A state.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Tan_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Cai_(state)]====


A state.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


Chao/巢, a state, Count.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


Chao/巢, a state, Count.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


Chao/巢, a state, Count.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


Chao/巢, a state, Count.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


Chao/巢, a state, Count.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


Chao/巢, a state, Count.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


Chao/巢, a state, Count.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


Chao/巢, a state, Count.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


Chao/巢, a state, Count.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Silla_(disambiguation)]====


[[LINK|lang_en|Silla|Silla]] was a state from ? to 935 AD.

Silla may also refer to:

Arts and religion


People


Places


Other


See also


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Balhae]====


A state.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Taejo_of_Goryeo]====


A person.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


Chao/巢, a state, Count.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Qi_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Lu_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Yan_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Han_(state)]====


All kindda states called Han.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Zhao_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Wey_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Qin_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chu_(state)]====


All kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Song_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Zhongshan_(state)]====


A state.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Jin_State]====


Jin is a toneless pinyin romanization of various Chinese names and words. These have also been romanized as Kin and Chin in the past. "Jin" also occurs in Japanese and Korean.

It may refer to:

States


Places


Rivers


Surnames


Entertainment


  • Jin Akanishi (born 1984), Japanese musician
  • Jin Akimoto (born 1971), Japanese mixed martial artist
  • Jin Hanato (端戸 仁, born 1990), Japanese footballer
  • Jin Hiratsuka (平墳 迅, born 1999), Japanese footballer
  • Jin Horikawa (堀川 仁, born 1962), Japanese voice actor
  • Jin Ikoma (生駒 仁, born 1999), Japanese footballer
  • Jin Watanabe (handball player) (渡部 仁, born 1990), Japanese handball player
  • MC Jin (born 1982), Hong Kong American rapper
  • Jin, the stage name of Park Myung-eun (born 1996), South Korean singer with the girl group Lovelyz
  • Jin, the stage name of Kim Seok-jin (born 1992), South Korean singer of the boy band BTS
  • Jin Jin (진진 born 1996) stage name of Park Jin Woo, south Korean singer of the boy group Astro

Other uses


See also


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Zhou_dynasty]====


Kindda dynasties.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Qi_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Silla_(disambiguation)]====


[[LINK|lang_en|Silla|Silla]] was a state from ? to 935 AD.

Silla may also refer to:

Arts and religion


People


Places


Other


See also


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Balhae]====


A state.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Taejo_of_Goryeo]====


A person.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


Chao/巢, a state, Count.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Zhongshan_(state)]====


A state.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Song_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chu_(state)]====


All kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Lu_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Qi_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Silla_(disambiguation)]====


[[LINK|lang_en|Silla|Silla]] was a state from ? to 935 AD.

Silla may also refer to:

Arts and religion


People


Places


Other


See also


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Balhae]====


A state.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Taejo_of_Goryeo]====


A person.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


Chao/巢, a state, Count.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Chao_(state)]====


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Qi_(state)]====


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Silla_(disambiguation)]====


[[LINK|lang_en|Silla|Silla]] was a state from ? to 935 AD.

Silla may also refer to:

Arts and religion


People


Places


Other


See also



====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Qi_(state)]====


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Shu_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Xian_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Xian_(state)]====


Kindda states.

====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Donghai]====


Donghai (East Sea) may refer to:

China


  • East China Sea, also known as Donghai from its Chinese name (东海), a marginal sea east of China East Sea (Chinese literature), one of the Four Seas, a literary name for the boundaries of China
  • Donghai County (东海县), of Lianyungang, Jiangsu
  • Donghai Island (东海岛), island in Zhanjiang, Guangdong
  • Donghai Subdistrict (东海街道) Donghai Subdistrict, Quanzhou, in Fengze District, Quanzhou, Fujian Donghai Subdistrict, Lufeng, Shanwei, Guangdong Donghai Subdistrict, Jixi, in Chengzihe District, Jixi, Heilongjiang Donghai Subdistrict, Tianjin, in Hexi District, Tianjin
  • Towns named Donghai (东海镇) Donghai, Putian County, Fujian Donghai, Jidong County, Heilongjiang Donghai, Qidong, Jiangsu

Vietnam


See also


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Nanhai]====


Nanhai (Chinese: 南海; literally: 'South Sea') may refer to:

See also


====THE CONTENT BELOW WAS MERGED IN FROM [/lang_en/Hu_(disambiguation)]====


HU or Hu may refer to:

Arts and entertainment


  • Hu Sanniang, a fictional character in the Water Margin, one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature
  • Tian Hu, one of the antagonists in the Water Margin*
  • Hollywood Undead, an American rap rock band
  • The Hu, a Mongolian heavy metal band

Language


Mythology and religion


  • Hu (mythology), the deification of the first word in the Egyptian mythology of the Ennead
  • Huh (god), the deification of eternity in the Egyptian mythology of the Ogdoad
  • Hu (Sufism), a name for God
  • , a kachina in Hopi mythology
  • Adir Hu, a hymn sung at the Passover Seder
  • Hu Gadarn (or Hu the Mighty), a Welsh legendary figure
  • HU, a mantra popularized by the religion Eckankar as a name for and love song to God

People


  • Hu (surname), a Chinese family name represented by the character 胡
  • Hu Jinqiu (born 1997), Chinese basketball player
  • Hu Jintao (born 1942), former General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and President of the People's Republic of China
  • Chin-lung Hu (born 1984), Major League Baseball shortstop for the Los Angeles Dodgers
  • Hu Hesheng (born 1928), Chinese mathematician
  • Hu Yaobang (1915–1989), leader of the People's Republic of China who supported economic and political reforms
  • Hu Haichang (born 1928), Chinese mechanical and astronautic engineer
  • Hu Ning (1916–1997), Chinese theoretical physicist and educator
  • Hu Shih (1891–1962), Chinese philosopher, essayist and diplomat
  • Hu Qiaomu (1912–1992), Chinese revolutionary, sociologist, Marxist philosopher and prominent politician of People's Republic of China
  • Hu Jimin (1919–1998), Chinese nuclear and plasma physicist and educator
  • Hu Xiansu (1894–1968) Chinese botanist
  • Ting-Ting Hu (born 1979), English-born Taiwanese actress
  • Hu Nai-yuan, Taiwanese violinist
  • Any peoples in Chinese history translated as "barbarian" in English Donghu people Xihu people

Places


  • Shanghai, abbreviated Hù (沪/滬), the largest city in China
  • Hu County, in Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
  • Huy, Walloon name Hu, Belgian city
  • Hu, Egypt, the modern name of an Egyptian town on the Nile, which in more ancient times was the capital of the 7th Nome of Upper Egypt
  • Hanau, Germany, on vehicle registration plates
  • Huesca, Spain, on vehicle registration plates
  • Hungary, from it ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code
  • HU postcode area, covering Hull and areas of East Riding of Yorkshire

Universities


Other uses


See also


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