Duke of Burgundy (French: duc de Bourgogne) was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, from its establishmemt in 843 to its annexation by France in 1477, and later by Habsburg sovereigns of the Burgundian Low Countries (1478-1556).
The Duchy of Burgundy a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks. Under the Ancien Régime, the Duke of Burgundy was the premier lay peer of the kingdom of France. Beginning with Robert II of France, the title was held by the Capetians, the French royal family. It was granted to Robert's younger son, Robert, who founded the House of Burgundy. When the senior line of the House of Burgundy became extinct, it was inherited by John II of France through proximity of blood. John granted the duchy as an appanage for his younger son, Philip the Bold. The Valois Dukes of Burgundy became dangerous rivals to the senior line of the House of Valois.
When the male line of the Valois Dukes of Burgundy became extinct in 1477, the Duchy of Burgundy was confiscated by Louis XI of France. The title Duke of Burgundy passed to Habsburg monarchs via marriage. The Habsburgs used it to have a claim on Burgundy proper and to rule their Burgundian Inheritance. Today, the title is used by the House of Bourbon as a revived courtesy title.
List of Dukes of Burgundy
The first margrave (marchio), later duke (dux), of Burgundy was Richard of the House of Ardennes, whose duchy was created from the merging of several regional counties of the kingdom of Provence which had belonged to his brother Boso.
His descendants and their relatives by marriage ruled the duchy until its annexation over a century later by the French crown, their suzerain.
- Richard the Justiciar (880–921)
- Rudolph (921–923), then King of the Franks
- Hugh the Black (923–952)
- Gilbert (952–956)
- Otto William (1002–1004)
In 1004, Burgundy was annexed by the king, of the House of Capet. Otto William continued to rule what would come to be called the Free County of Burgundy. His descendants formed another House of Ivrea.
- Robert (1004–1016) (also king of the Franks as Robert II)
- Henry (1016–1032) (also king of the Franks as Henry I)
In 1477, the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy was annexed by France. In the same year, Mary married Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, giving the Habsburgs control of the remainder of the Burgundian Inheritance.
Although the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy itself remained in the hands of France, the Habsburgs remained in control of the title of Duke of Burgundy and the other parts of the Burgundian inheritance, notably the Low Countries and the Free County of Burgundy in the Holy Roman Empire. They often used the term Burgundy to refer to it (e.g. in the name of the Imperial Circle it was grouped into), until the late 18th century, when the Austrian Netherlands were lost to French Republic. The Habsburgs also continued to claim Burgundy proper until the Treaty of Cambrai in 1529, when they surrendered their claim in exchange for French recognition of Imperial sovereignty over Flanders and Artois.
- Maximilian I (1477–1482 with his wife; regent 1482–1494)
- Philip IV the Handsome (German: Philipp der Schöne; French: Philippe le Beau), titular Duke of Burgundy as Philip IV (1482–1506)
- Charles II (Emperor Charles V and King Charles I of Spain) 1506–1555
- Philip V (King Philip II of Spain) 1556–1598
- Philip VI (King Philip III of Spain) 1598–1621
- Philip VII (King Philip IV of Spain) 1621–1665
- Charles III (King Charles II of Spain) 1665–1700
- Charles IV (Emperor Charles VI) 1713–1740
- Maria Theresa 1740–1780 Francis I (Emperor Francis I) (1740–1765 with his wife)
- Joseph (Emperor Joseph II) 1780–1790
- Leopold (Emperor Leopold II) 1790–1792
- Francis II (Emperor Francis II) 1792–1795/1835
- Ferdinand (Emperor Ferdinand I) (1835–1848 titular only)
- Franz Joseph (Emperor Franz Joseph I) (1848–1916 titular only)
- Charles V (Emperor Charles I) (1916–1918 titular only later renounced)
- King Juan Carlos I of Spain (1975–2014)
- King Felipe VI of Spain (2014–present) – the title is one of the titles of the Spanish Crown
- Prince Louis of Bourbon (2010–present) – the title is used by eldest son of the legitimist claimant to the French throne Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou.
- Duchess of Burgundy
- Kingdom of Burgundy
- King of Burgundy
- Duchy of Burgundy
- County of Burgundy
- Count of Burgundy
- Dukes of Burgundy family tree
- Calmette, Joseph. Doreen Weightman, trans. The Golden Age of Burgundy; the Magnificent Dukes and Their Courts. New York: W.W. Norton, 1962.
- Chaumé, Maurice. Les Origines du Duché de Bourgogne. 2v. in 4 parts. Dijon: Jobard, 1925 (Darmstadt: npub, 1977).
- Michael, Nicholas. Armies of Medieval Burgundy 1364–1477. London: Osprey, 1983. ISBN 0-85045-518-9.
- Vaughan, Richard. Valois Burgundy. London: Allen Lane, 1975. ISBN 0-7139-0924-2.