This is a comparison of orbital launch systems. The following exposes the full list of conventional orbital launch systems. For the short simple list of conventional launcher families, see: Comparison of orbital launchers families. For the list of predominantly solid-fuelled orbital launch systems, see: Comparison of solid-fuelled orbital launch systems.
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. A conventional solid rocket or a conventional solid-fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). Orbital launch systems are rockets and other systems capable of placing payloads into or beyond Earth orbit. All current spacecraft use conventional chemical rockets (bipropellant or solid-fuel) for launch, though some have used air-breathing engines on their first stage.
Current and upcoming rockets
- LEO, low Earth orbit
- SSO or SSPO, near-polar Sun-synchronous orbit
- polar, polar orbit
- MEO, medium Earth orbit
- GTO, geostationary transfer orbit
- GEO, geostationary orbit (direct injection)
- HEO, high Earth orbit
- HCO, heliocentric orbit
- TLI, trans-lunar injection
- TMI, trans-Mars injection
Launch systems by country
The following chart shows the number of launch systems developed in each country, and broken down by operational status. Rocket variants are not distinguished; i.e., the Atlas V series is only counted once for all its configurations 401–431, 501–551, 552, and N22.