Kleve (/ˈkleɪvə/ KLAY-və, German: [ˈkleːvə]; traditional English: Cleves /kliːvz/ KLEEVZ]]efFrench: ClèvesSpanish: CléverisLatin: Clivias a town in the Lower Rhine region of northwestern Germany near the Dutch border and the river Rhine. From the 11th century onwards, Cleves was capital of a county and later a duchy. Today, Cleves is the capital of the district of Cleves in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The city is home to one of the campuses of the Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences.
Territory of the municipality
The territory of Kleve comprises, next to the innercity, of fourteen villages and populated places: Bimmen, Brienen, Donsbrüggen, Düffelward, Griethausen, Keeken, Kellen, Materborn, Reichswalde, Rindern, Salmorth, Schenkenschanz, Warbeyen and Wardhausen.
The name Kleff probably derives from Middle Dutch clef, clif ‘cliff, bluff’, referring to the promontory on which the Schwanenburg castle was constructed. Since the city's coat of arms displays three clovers (German Klee, Low German Kliev), the city's name is sometimes linked by folk etymology to the clover, but the corresponding Dutch word is klever. Notably, Kleve was spelled with a C throughout its history until spelling reforms introduced in the 1930s required that the name be spelled with a K. In 2008, the CDU announced its intention to return the name to its original spelling.
The Schwanenburg Castle, where the dukes of Cleves resided, was founded on a steep hill. It is located at the northern terminus of the Kermisdahl where it joins with the Spoykanal, which was previously an important transportation link to the Rhine. The old castle has a massive tower, the Schwanenturm 180 feet (55 m) high, that is associated in legend with the Knight of the Swan, immortalized in Richard Wagner's Lohengrin
Medieval Kleve grew together from four parts — the Schwanenburg Castle, the village below the castle, the first city of Kleve on Heideberg Hill, and the Neustadt ("New City"), dating from the 14th century. In 1242 Kleve received city rights. The Duchy of Cleves, which roughly covered today's districts of Kleve, Wesel and Duisburg, was united with the Duchy of Mark in 1368, was made a duchy itself in 1417, then united with the neighboring duchies of Jülich and Berg in 1521, when John III, Duke of Cleves, married Mary, heiress of Jülich-Berg-Ravenburg.
Kleve's most famous native is Anne of Cleves (1515–1557), daughter of John III, Duke of Cleves and (briefly) wife of Henry VIII of England. Several local businesses are named after her, including the Anne von Kleve Galerie.
The ducal dynasty became extinct in the male line in 1609, leading to a succession crisis in the duchies.
During the Thirty Years' War the city had been under the control of the Dutch Republic, which in 1647 had given Johann Moritz von Nassau-Siegen administrative control over the city. He approved a renovation of Schwanenburg Castle in the baroque style and commissioned the construction of extensive gardens that greatly influenced European landscape design. Significant amounts of his original plan for Kleve were put into effect and have been maintained to the present, a particularly well-loved example of which is the Forstgarten (Forest Garden).
The mineral waters of Kleve and the wooded parkland surrounding it made it a fashionable spa in the 19th century. At this time, Kleve was named "Bad Cleve" (English: Spa of Cleves).
During World War II Kleve was the site of one of the two radio wave stations that served the Knickebein aircraft navigation system. Luftwaffe bombers used radio beams from Kleve and a second station at Stolberg to navigate to British targets. The Knickebein system was eventually jammed by the British. It was replaced by the higher frequency X-Gerat system, which used transmitter stations located on the channel coast of France.
Kleve was heavily bombed during the Second World War, and over 90 percent of buildings in the city were severely damaged. Most of the destruction was the result of a raid late in the war in 1945, conducted at the request of Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks in preparation for Operation Veritable. Horrocks recounted his decision in the 1973 television documentary The World at War
Horrocks later said that this had been "the most terrible decision I had ever taken in my life" and that he felt "physically sick" when he saw the bombers overhead.
As a result of the bombing, relatively little of the pre-1945 city remains.
Since 1953 there has been a broadcasting facility for FM radio and television from regional broadcaster WDR near Kleve. The current aerial mast was brought into service in 1993. The steel tube mast rises 126.4 metres high and has a diameter of 1.6 metres. It is stabilized by guy wires attached at 57 and 101.6 metres height.
After the Second World War important employers in the area were associated with the West German "Economic Miracle" (Wirtschaftswunder), and included the XOX Bisquitfabrik (XOX Biscuit Factory) GmbH and the Van den Berg'schen Margerinewerke (margarine plant), that manufactured biscuits and margarine. Another important employer was the Elefanten-Kinderschuhfabrik (Elefant Children's Shoes Factory).
Retail became an increasingly important industry, particularly after the institution of the euro in 2002. Dutch citizens often crossed the open border to patronize Kleves retailers, and much of the euros spent on shopping in Kleve came from the Netherlands. Lower costs of real estate have attracted a wave of Dutch citizens, who purchased houses in the area.
According to the Statistical Yearbook of Cleves as of 2013, 50,650 people resided in the city.
In the city, in 2013, the population was distributed with 19.7% under the age of 21, 25.6% from 21 to 40, 29.7% from 41 to 60, 20.1% from 61 to 80, and 4.9% who were 81 years of age or older.
81.3 of the citizens lived in households without children under the age of 18, 9.2% with one child, 6.1% with two children, 1.7% with three children, and 0.1% with four children or more.
As the rest of the Lower Rhine region, Kleve is a predominantly Roman Catholic city. The city is part of the Diocese of Münster. 61.1% of the residents are Roman Catholics, 14.4% Protestant, and 24.6% "Other". The largest section of this group are residents without any religious affiliation, but there are also sizeable Russian Orthodox and Muslim communities in Kleve.
The synagogue of Kleve was destroyed during Kristallnacht and is today commemorated on the Synagogenplatz (Synagogue square) on which the building´s outline can be seen. The fifty killed Jewish citizens of Cleves are remembered with signs that tell their names, and dates and places of death.
Gallery of churches in Kleve
Prior to the Nazi Era, Kleve's local politics were dominated by the Catholic Centre Party. This situation continued with the Christian Democratic successor party CDU after the Second World War, in spite of resettled displaced people from eastern Germany, most of them Protestants. Until 2004 the CDU controlled an absolute majority of the city council.
Today, Kleve is governed by a coalition of CDU and the Green Party. Since the last local elections on 25 May 2014 the following parties are represented in Cleves' city council. In addition to nationwide parties, Offene Klever (Open Cleves) has a number of seats.
The next local elections are scheduled for 2020.
In 2015, Sonja Northing (no party affiliation) became mayor of Kleve, with 64.5% of the vote.
Language and dialect
The native language of Kleve and much of the Lower Rhine region is a Dutch dialect known as Cleverlander (Dutch: Kleverlands, German: Kleverländisch), most closely related to South Guelderish, but the official language is German, which is dominant among the younger generation.
Because of its geographical location at the Dutch-German border, there is a strong overlap in culture and language.
Kleve is twinned with
- Joseph Beuys, artist, grew up in Kleve.
- Anne of Cleves, fourth wife of Henry VIII of England.
- Marie of Cleves, mother of king Louis XII of France.
- Marie Eleonore of Cleves, Duchess of consort Prussia.
- Jean-Baptiste du Val-de-Grâce, baron de Cloots, (1755-1794), politician and French revolutionary, born in Kleve.
- Barbara Hendricks, (born 1952), politician (SPD), current German Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety, born in Kleve.
- Karl Leisner, (1915-1945), Roman Catholic martyr and beatified by Pope John Paul II, grew up in Kleve.
- Joachim Murat, (1767-1815), Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves during the Napoleonic years.
- Duke Englebert of Cleves, (1462-1506), Count of Nevers.
- Govaert Flinck, (1615-1660), Dutch painter who worked in Kleve.
- Tina Theune, (born 1953), former national coach of the German women's national football team.
- Heinrich Berghaus (1797-1884), cartographer.
- Klaus Steinbach (born 1953), swimmer and president of the Nationales Olympisches Komitee.
- Willi Lippens (born 1945), football player.
- Jürgen Möllemann (1945-2003), politician (FDP), Federal Minister.