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Calgary ( /ˈkælɡəri, -ɡri/ ( ) ) is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta.

The city had a population of 1,239,220 in 2016, making it Alberta's largest city and Canada's third-largest municipality.

The economy of Calgary includes activity in the energy, financial services, film and television, transportation and logistics, technology, manufacturing, aerospace, health and wellness, retail, and tourism sectors.

In 1988, Calgary became the first Canadian city to host the Winter Olympic Games.

Etymology


Calgary was named after Calgary on the Isle of Mull, Scotland.

Prior to contact, the indigenous peoples of Southern Alberta referred to the Calgary area as "elbow ," in reference to the sharp bend made by the Bow River and the Elbow River.

There have been several attempts to revive the indigenous names of Calgary.

History


The Calgary area was inhabited by pre-Clovis people whose presence has been traced back at least 11,000 years.

In 1875, the site became a post of the North-West Mounted Police (now the Royal Canadian Mounted Police or RCMP).

When the Canadian Pacific Railway reached the area in 1883, and a rail station was constructed, Calgary began to grow into an important commercial and agricultural centre.

The Calgary Fire of 1886 occurred on November 7, 1886.

After the arrival of the railway, the Dominion Government started leasing grazing land at minimal cost (up to 100,000 acres (400 km 2 ) for one cent per acre per year).

By the late 19th century, the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) expanded into the interior and established posts along rivers that later developed into the modern cities of Winnipeg, Calgary and Edmonton.

Between 1896 and 1914 settlers from all over the world poured into the area in response to the offer of free "homestead" land.

Oil was first discovered in Alberta in 1902, [278] but it did not become a significant industry in the province until 1947 when reserves of it were discovered near Leduc.

Calgary's economy was so closely tied to the oil industry that the city's boom peaked with the average annual price of oil in 1981.

With the energy sector employing a huge number of Calgarians, the fallout from the economic slump of the early 1980s was significant, and the unemployment rate soared.

Thanks in part to escalating oil prices, the economy in Calgary and Alberta was booming until the end of 2009, and the region of nearly 1.1 million people was home to the fastest growing economy in the country.

Widespread flooding throughout southern Alberta, including on the Bow and Elbow rivers, forced the evacuation of over 75,000 city residents on June 21, 2013, and left large areas of the city, including downtown, without power.

Geography


Calgary is located at the transition zone between the Canadian Rockies foothills and the Canadian Prairies.

Two rivers run through the city.

The City of Calgary, 848 km 2 (327 sq mi) in size, [32] consists of an inner city surrounded by suburban communities of various density.

Over the years, the city has made many land annexations to facilitate growth.

Numerous plant and animal species are found within and around Calgary.

The downtown region of the city consists of five neighbourhoods: Eau Claire (including the Festival District), the Downtown West End, the Downtown Commercial Core, Chinatown, and the Downtown East Village (also part of the Rivers District). The commercial core is itself divided into a number of districts including the Stephen Avenue Retail Core, the Entertainment District, the Arts District and the Government District.

Adjacent to, or directly radiating from the downtown are the first of the inner-city communities.

Several of Calgary's neighbourhoods were initially separate municipalities that were annexed by the city as it grew.

Calgary experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb ). It falls into the NRC Plant Hardiness Zone 4a.

Winters are cold and the air temperature can drop to or below −20 °C (−4 °F) on average of 22 days of the year and −30 °C (−22 °F) on average of 3.7 days of the year, and are often broken up by warm, dry Chinook winds that blow into Alberta over the mountains.

In summer, daytime temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F) an average of 5.1 days anytime in June, July and August, and occasionally as late as September or as early as May, and in winter drop below or at −30 °C (−22 °F) 3.7 days of the year.

Calgary has the most sunny days year round of Canada's 100 largest cities, with just over 332 days of sun; [127] it has on average 2,396 hours of sunshine annually.

Calgary International Airport in the northeastern section of the city receives an average of 418.8 mm (16.49 in) of precipitation annually, with 326.4 mm (12.85 in) of that occurring in the form of rain, and 129 cm (51 in) as snow.

Thunderstorms can be frequent and some times severe [83] with most of them occurring in the summer months.

The highest temperature ever recorded in Calgary was 36.1 °C (97 °F) on July 15, 1919, and July 25, 1933.

Demographics


The population of the City of Calgary according to its 2017 municipal census is 1,246,337, a change of 6999900000000000000♠ 0.9% from its 2016 municipal census population of 1,235,171.

In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the City of Calgary recorded a population of 1,239,220 living in 466,725 of its 489,650 total private dwellings, a change of 7001130000000000000♠ 13% from its 2011 population of 1,096,833.

In the 2011 Census, the City of Calgary had a population of 1,096,833 living in 423,417 of its 445,848 total dwellings, a change of 10.9% from its 2006 adjusted population of 988,812.

The Calgary census metropolitan area (CMA) is the fifth-largest CMA in Canada and largest in Alberta.

As a consequence of the large number of corporations, as well as the presence of the energy sector in Alberta, Calgary has a median family income of $104,530.

As of 2016, 36.2% of the population belong to a visible minority group.

Christians make up 54.9% of the population, while 32.3% have no religious affiliation.

Its St. Mary’s Cathedral is the see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Calgary.

Economy


Calgary is recognized as a Canadian leader in the oil and gas industry as well as for being a leader in economic expansion.

Calgary benefits from a relatively strong job market in Alberta, is part of the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor, one of the fastest growing regions in the country.

Calgary's economy is decreasingly dominated by the oil and gas industry, although it is still the single largest contributor to the city's GDP.

As of November 2016, the city had a labour force of 901,700 (a 74.6% participation rate) and 10.3% unemployment rate.

In 2010 the "Professional, Technical and Management" Industry accounted for over 14% of employment and the areas of "Architectural, Engineering and Design Services" and "Management, Scientific and Technical Services" employment levels far exceed Canadian levels.

In 2006, the top three private sector employers in Calgary were Shaw Communications (7,500 employees), Nova Chemicals (4,945) and Telus (4,517).

In Canada, Calgary has the second-highest concentration of head offices in Canada (behind Toronto), the most head offices per capita, and the highest head office revenue per capita.

WestJet is headquartered close to the Calgary International Airport, [279] and Enerjet has its headquarters on the airport grounds.

According to a report by Alexi Olcheski of Avison Young published in August 2015, vacancy rates rose to 11.5 per cent in the second quarter of 2015 from 8.3 per cent in 2014.

Arts and culture


Calgary has a number of multicultural areas.

While many Calgarians continue to live in the city's suburbs, more central districts such as 17 Avenue, Kensington, Inglewood, Forest Lawn, Marda Loop and the Mission District have become more popular and density in those areas has increased.

The Calgary Public Library is the city's public library network, with 17 branches loaning books, e-books, CDs, DVDs, Blu-rays, audio books, and more.

Calgary is the site of the Southern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium performing arts, culture and community facility.

The Alberta Ballet is the third largest dance company in Canada.

The city is also home to a number of theatre companies; among them are One Yellow Rabbit, which shares the Arts Commons building with the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra, as well as Theatre Calgary, Alberta Theatre Projects and Theatre Junction GRAND, culture house dedicated to the contemporary live arts.

Every three years, Calgary hosts the Honens International Piano Competition (formerly known as the Esther Honens International Piano Competition).

Visual and conceptual artists like the art collective United Congress are active in the city.

A number of marching bands are based in Calgary.

Calgary is also home to a choral music community, including a variety of amateur, community, and semi-professional groups.

Calgary hosts a number of annual festivals and events.

Several museums are located in the city.

Numerous films have been shot in Calgary and area.

The Calgary Herald and the Calgary Sun are the main newspapers in Calgary.

Attractions


Downtown features an eclectic mix of restaurants and bars, cultural venues, public squares (including Olympic Plaza) and shopping.

Attractions on the west side of the city include the Heritage Park Historical Village historical park, depicting life in pre-1914 Alberta and featuring working historic vehicles such as a steam train, paddle steamer and electric streetcar.

In nearby Airdrie at the Calgary/Airdrie Airport the Airdrie Regional Airshow is held every two years.

Downtown can be recognized by its numerous skyscrapers.

In total, there are 14 office towers that are at least 150 m (490 ft) (usually around 40 floors) or higher.

Sports and recreation


In large part due to its proximity to the Rocky Mountains, Calgary has traditionally been a popular destination for winter sports.

In the summer, the Bow River is very popular among fly-fishermen.

Calgary hosted the 2009 World Water Ski Championship Festival in August, at the Predator Bay Water Ski Club, approximately 40 km (25 mi) south of the city.

As part of the wider Battle of Alberta, the city's sports teams enjoy a popular rivalry with their Edmonton counterparts, most notably the rivalries between the National Hockey League's Calgary Flames and Edmonton Oilers, and the Canadian Football League's Calgary Stampeders and Edmonton Eskimos.

Calgary is renowned in professional wrestling tradition as both the home-city of the prominent Hart wrestling family and the location of the infamous Hart family "Dungeon", wherein WWE Hall of Fame member and patriarch of the Hart Family, Stu Hart, [136] trained numerous professional wrestlers including Superstar Billy Graham, Brian Pillman, the British Bulldogs, Edge, Christian, Greg Valentine, Chris Jericho, Jushin Thunder Liger and many more.

In 1997 Calgary hosted The World Police & Fire Games hosting over 16,000 athletes from all over the world.

Within Calgary there are approximately 8,000 ha (20,000 acres) of parkland available for public usage and recreation.

Calgary also has multiple private sporting clubs including the Glencoe Club and the Calgary Winter Club.

Government


The city is a corporate power-centre, a high percentage of the workforce is employed in white-collar jobs.

Calgary is governed in accordance with Alberta's Municipal Government Act (1995).

Two school boards operate independently of each other in Calgary, the public and the separate systems.

As a result of the 2015 provincial election, Calgary is represented by twenty-five MLAs, including fifteen New Democrats, seven Progressive Conservatives, and one member each of the Wildrose Party, Alberta Party and Alberta Liberal Party.

On October 19, 2015, Calgary elected its first two Liberal federal MPs since 1968, Darshan Kang for Calgary Skyview and Kent Hehr for Calgary Centre.

The federal riding of Calgary Heritage was held by former Prime Minister and CPC leader Stephen Harper.

The Green Party of Canada has also made inroads in Calgary, exemplified by results of the 2011 federal election where they achieved 7.7% of the vote across the city, ranging from 4.7% in Calgary Northeast to 13.1% in Calgary Centre-North.

The Calgary census metropolitan area (CMA) had a crime severity index of 60.4 in 2013, which is lower than the national average of 68.7.

The presence of the Canadian military has been part of the local economy and culture since the early years of the 20th century, beginning with the assignment of a squadron of Strathcona's Horse.

The Calgary Soldiers' Memorial commemorates those who died during wartime or while serving overseas.

Infrastructure


Calgary International Airport (YYC), in the city's northeast, is a transportation hub for much of central and western Canada.

Calgary's presence on the Trans-Canada Highway and the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) mainline (which includes the CPR Alyth Yard) also make it an important hub for freight.

Much of Calgary's street network is on a grid where roads are numbered with avenues running east–west and streets running north–south.

Calgary Transit provides public transportation services throughout the city with buses and light rail.

As an alternative to the over 260 km (160 mi) of shared bikeways on streets, the city has a network of multi-use (bicycle, walking, rollerblading, etc.) paths spanning over 635 km (395 mi). [126] The Peace Bridge provides pedestrians and cyclists, access to the downtown core from the north side of the Bow river.

In the 1960s, Calgary started to develop a series of pedestrian bridges, connecting many downtown buildings.

Calgary has four major adult acute care hospitals and one major pediatric acute care site: the Alberta Children's Hospital, the Foothills Medical Centre, the Peter Lougheed Centre, the Rockyview General Hospital and the South Health Campus.

The four largest Calgary hospitals have a combined total of more than 2,100 beds, and employ over 11,500 people.

Education


In the 2011–2012 school year, 100,632 K-12 students enrolled in 221 schools in the English language public school system run by the Calgary Board of Education.

Calgary is also home to what was Western Canada's largest public high school, Lord Beaverbrook High School, with 2,241 students enrolled in the 2005–2006 school year.

The publicly funded University of Calgary (U of C) is Calgary's largest degree-granting facility with an enrolment of 28,464 students in 2011.

Other publicly funded post-secondary institutions based in Calgary include the Alberta College of Art and Design, Ambrose University College (associated with the Christian and Missionary Alliance and the Church of the Nazarene), Bow Valley College, Mount Royal University, SAIT Polytechnic, St.

Several independent private institutions are located in the city.

Media


Calgary's daily newspapers include the Calgary Herald , Calgary Sun and Metro News .

Calgary is the sixth largest television market in Canada.

There are a wide range of radio stations, including a station for First Nations and the Asian Canadian community.

Notable people


Sister cities


The City of Calgary maintains trade development programs, cultural and educational partnerships in twinning agreements with six cities: [279] [279]

Calgary is one of nine Canadian cities, out of the total of 98 cities internationally, that is in the New York City Global Partners, Inc. organization, [279] which was formed in 2006 from the former Sister City program of the City of New York, Inc. [279]

See also


Calgary, a cosmopolitan Alberta city with numerous skyscrapers, owes its rapid growth to its status as the centre of Canada’s oil industry.

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