Aldingen lies on the eastern edge of the Baar region at the foot of the Swabian Jura, and within sight of the Dreifaltigkeitsberg (Holy Trinity Mountain). The Prim, which joins the Neckar (a tributary of the Rhine) in Rottweil, passes through Aldingen.
Balgheim is bordered by the city of Rottweil as well as Frittlingen to the north, Denkingen to the east, the city of Spaichingen to the south, and the city of Trossingen, as well as Deisslingen in the district Rottweil, to the west.
The ending of the town name (-ingen) indicates that Aldingen has its roots in the territory of Alamannia. During the restoration of the Protestant Mauritius church, archaeological research resulted in the discovery of evidence that allows the origins of the town to be traced back to the 4th century AD. In addition, post holes dating back to around 700 AD were uncovered. In the late 11th century, this wooden church was replaced by one built of stone.
Aldingen belongs to the Amt Spaichingen.
Aldingen is located on the Gäubahn, and, after having been discontinued as a stop in 1977, again became a train station in 2003 with the establishment of the Ringzug. The station is one of the most successful stops on the Ringzug route, with in excess of 1,000 passengers using the station on a weekday.
The Bundesstraße 14 (federal highway) between Rottweil and Tuttlingen passes through the eastern portion of Aldingen. Landstrassen and Kreisstrassen (county and district roads) connect the town with Denkingen, Frittlingen, and Trossingen, which are also utilized by successful bus connections from the train station.