France annexes Madagascar
Madagascar (/ˌmædəˈɡæskər, -kɑːr/; Malagasy: Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Malagasy: Repoblikan'i Madagasikara Malagasy pronunciation: [republiˈkʲan madaɡasˈkʲarə̥ ]; French: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, approximately 400 kilometres (250 miles) off the coast of East Africa. At 592,800 square kilometres (228,900 sq mi) Madagascar is the world's 2nd largest island country. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar (the fourth-largest island in the world) and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from the Indian subcontinent around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth. The island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the rapidly growing human population and other environmental threats.
2010 Madagascar coup d'etat attempt
Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa
Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa is a 2008 American computer-animated comedy film produced by DreamWorks Animation and distributed by Paramount Pictures. The sequel to the 2005 film Madagascar and the second installment in the franchise, it continues the adventures of Alex the Lion, Marty the Zebra, Melman the Giraffe, and Gloria the Hippo. It was directed by Eric Darnell and Tom McGrath, with a screenplay written by Etan Cohen, Darnell, and McGrath. Ben Stiller, Chris Rock, David Schwimmer, Jada Pinkett Smith, Sacha Baron Cohen, Cedric the Entertainer, Andy Richter, and Elisa Gabrielli reprise their roles from the first film, and are joined by new cast members Bernie Mac, Alec Baldwin, Sherri Shepherd, and will.i.am.
Air Madagascar destinations
Air Madagascar was established as Madair on 1 January 1962 (1962-01-01) by Air France and the original 1947-formed Air Madagascar —subsidiary of Transports Aériens Intercontinentaux (TAI) at that time — when it took over the domestic routes operated by these two airlines. Air France and Air Madagascar initially had a 44% and 36% stake in Madair, respectively, while the Malagasy government held the balance. On 20 October 1961, intercontinental services were started, flying a weekly Tananarive –Djibouti –Nice –Paris service using a DC-7 leased from TAI.
List of national parks of Madagascar
This list of national parks of Madagascar includes all officially recognized protected areas as of 2015. The protected areas network of Madagascar is managed by the Madagascar National Parks Association (PNM-ANGAP). The network includes three types of protected areas: Strict Nature Reserves (IUCN category Ia), National Parks (IUCN category II) and Wildlife Reserves (IUCN category IV). At the 2003 IUCN World Parks Congress in Durban, the Malagasy President, Marc Ravalomanana, announced an initiative to more than triple the area under protection from approximately 4,200,791 acres (17,000.00 km2) to over 14,826,322 acres (60,000.00 km2) (from 3% to 10% of Madagascar's area). This "Durban Vision", as it has been dubbed, involved broadening the definition of protected areas in the country and legislation has been passed to allow the creation of four new categories of protected area: Natural Parks (IUCN category II), Natural Monuments (IUCN category III), Protected Landscapes (IUCN category V), and Natural Resource Reserves (IUCN category VI). As well as allowing these new objectives for protected areas management, the new legislation also provided for entities other than PNM-ANGAP to manage protected areas, such as government ministries, community associations, NGOs and other civil society organizations, and the private sector.
The Madagascan owl (Asio madagascariensis), also known as the Madagascar owl or Madagascar long-eared owl, is a medium sized owl endemic to the island of Madagascar. It is sometimes considered to be conspecific with the long-eared owl (Asio otus.)
Railway stations in Madagascar
List of Railway stations in Madagascar include:
East Madagascar Current
The East Madagascar Current is an oceanic flow feature near Madagascar. It flows southward from 20°S on the east side of Madagascar to the southern limit at Cape Saint Marie and subsequently feeds the Agulhas Current. Its flow is complicated by large cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies.
Education in Madagascar
Education in Madagascar has a long and distinguished history. Formal schooling began with medieval Arab seafarers, who established a handful of Islamic primary schools (kuttabs) and developed a transcription of the Malagasy language using Arabic script, known as sorabe . These schools were short-lived, and formal education was only to return under the 19th-century Kingdom of Madagascar when the support of successive kings and queens produced the most developed public school system in precolonial Sub-Saharan Africa. However, formal schools were largely limited to the central highlands around the capital of Antananarivo and were frequented by children of the noble class andriana. Among other segments of the island's population, traditional education predominated through the early 20th century. This informal transmission of communal knowledge, skills and norms was oriented toward preparing children to take their place in a social hierarchy dominated by community elders and particularly the ancestors (razana), who were believed to oversee and influence events on earth.
Aquaculture in Madagascar
Aquaculture started to take off in Madagascar in the 1980s. The majority of Aquaculture in Madagascar includes the cultivation of sea cucumbers, seaweed, fish and shrimp. Aquaculture in Madagascar is being used to stimulate the countries economy, increase the wages of fishermen and women in the area and improve the regions ocean water quality. Coastal regions of Madagascar are reliant on the Indian Oceans marine resources as a source of food, income, and cultural identity. Madagascar is the fourth-largest island in the world and consists of the main island, as well as smaller surrounding islands. Madagascar is considered to be a biodiversity hotspot. Over 90 percent of its wildlife is not found anywhere else on Earth. In the Velondriake, a locally managed marine area (LMMA) in southwest Madagascar, laws have been created by an official governing body, consisting of elected representatives from 25 villages, called ‘dina’, to combat environmental degradation. This LMMA includes coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, baobab forests and other threatened habitats. The Vezo, literally meaning ‘people who fish’ in the Malagasy language of the region, are amongst Madagascar's poorest. Making environmentally conscious efforts to boost the economy and raise incomes are top priorities for the LMMA.