• Czechoslovakia in the Gulf War

    Czechoslovakia sent a force of 200 to take part in Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm as part of the Coalition of the Gulf War. This operation was the sole military operation carried out by Czechoslovakia during the democratic period prior to its breakup in 1993. It was also the first armed conflict Czechoslovak troops took part in since World War II. The unit deployed to Saudi Arabia specialized in chemical defense and decontamination, a major concern in the Gulf War due to Saddam Hussein's use of mustard and nerve agents in the Iran–Iraq War. Czechoslovak forces were equipped with UAZ-469 all terrain vehicles equipped with chemical detection gear, Tatra T-815 transporters, and a variety of trucks designed for decontamination. The two platoons were headed by Colonel Ján Való. In the wake of the Gulf War, investigations were carried out by the Czech and Slovak government into claims of Gulf War Syndrome amongst returned veterans. Czechoslovak forces recorded the release of toxins such as sarin in Iraqi territory, that were attributed to as the causes of the syndrome.

  • Bulgarians in Czechoslovakia

    The Czech-Bulgarian relations date as far back as to the times of the Great Moravia.

  • Education in Czechoslovakia

    The education system in the former state of Czechoslovakia built on previous provision, which included compulsory education and was adapted in some respects to the ethnic diversity of the region. During the Communist period further progress was made in the school system towards equality in opportunity between regions and genders, but access to higher education depended upon the political compliance of students and their families. After the 'Velvet Revolution' in 1989 many reforms were introduced.

  • Jazz in Czechoslovakia

    Czechoslovakia's jazz roots were established by Jaroslav Ježek and Rudolf Antonín Dvorský in the 1920s and 1930s. Ježek's influence in this realm is particularly noted and by the time he immigrated to the United States in 1939, his compositions blending jazz and classical music were among the most popular music. After the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Nazis, however, jazz was banned and it was not until 1947 when the Australian jazz pianist Graeme Bell and his Dixieland Jazz Band performed at a World Youth Festival in Prague that the jazz movement was revived.

  • German People's Group in Czecho-Slovakia

    The German People's Group in Czecho-Slovakia (German: Deutsche Volksgruppe in der Tschecho-Slowakei, abbreviated DVG) was a German minority political party in the Second Czechoslovak Republic from October 30, 1938 to March 1939.

  • Ruthenians and Ukrainians in Czechoslovakia (1918–1938)

    Ruthenians and Ukrainians in Czechoslovakia (1918–1938)

    Rusyns and Ukrainians in Czechoslovakia during the period from 1918 to 1938, were ethnic Rusyns and ethnic Ukrainians of the First Czechoslovak Republic, representing two main ethnic communities in the most eastern region of Czechoslovakia, known during that period as the Subcarpathian Rus.

  • Transport in Czechoslovakia

    Czechoslovakia was one of Europe's major transit countries for north-south movement. As of 1985, Czechoslovakia had:

  • Germans in Czechoslovakia (1918–1938)

    The German-speaking population in the interwar Czechoslovak Republic, 23.3% of the population at the 1921 census, is usually reduced to the Sudeten Germans, but actually there were linguistic enclaves elsewhere in Czechoslovakia, and among the German-speaking urban dwellers there were "ethnic Germans " and/or Austrians as well as German-speaking Jews. 14% of the Czechoslovak Jews considered themselves as Germans at the 1921 census, but a much higher percentage declared German as their colloquial tongue during the last censuses under the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

  • Slovaks in Czechoslovakia (1918–38)

    Slovaks in Czechoslovakia (1918–38)

    Hlinka's Slovak People's Party (Slovak: Hlinkova slovenská ľudová strana, HSĽS; also known as the Slovak People's Party (Slovenská ľudová strana, SĽS) or the Hlinka Party) was a far-right clerofascist political party with a strong Catholic fundamentalist and authoritarian ideology. Its members were often called Ľudáks.

  • Slovaks in Czechoslovakia (1960–90)

    The division between Czechs and Slovaks in Czechoslovakia persisted as a key element in the reform movement of the 1960s and the retrenchment of the 1970s, a decade that dealt harshly with the aspirations of both Czechs and Slovaks. Ethnicity still remained integral to the social, political, and economic affairs of the country. In 1968, a Slovak writer called for a more positive reappraisal of the Slovak Republic. Although as a Marxist he found Monsignor Jozef Tiso's "clerico-fascist state" politically abhorrent, he acknowledged that "the Slovak Republic existed as the national state of the Slovaks, the only one in our history..." Comparable sentiments surfaced periodically throughout the 1970s in letters to Bratislava's Pravda, even though the newspaper's editors tried to inculcate in their readership a "class and concretely historical approach" to the nationality question.

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